Open Access Original Research Issue
Clinical efficacy and safety analysis of argatroban and alteplase treatment regimens for acute cerebral infarction
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2022, 10 (3): 100017
Published: 18 August 2022

This study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of argatroban and alteplase in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.


This study retrospectively analyzed 131 patients admitted for acute cerebral infarction within 48 h of onset from 1 December 2018 to 1 May 2021. The patients were divided according to treatment (i.e., the argatroban and alteplase groups). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (before treatment, at 24 h, and at 3, 7, and 14 days), 14-day response rate, 3-month modified Rankin Scale score (mRS), activities of daily living (ADL) score, prognosis, and adverse events during treatment were compared.


Sixty-two and 69 patients were enrolled in the alteplase and argatroban groups, respectively, and both had comparable baseline data. The NIHSS scores of the alteplase group decreased significantly before and after treatment (24 h and at 3, 7, and 14 days), whereas those of the alteplase group decreased most rapidly after 24 h of administration. The argatroban group showed no significant changes in NIHSS score in the first 7 days after treatment until day 14, at which it significantly decreased. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in four points (P < 0.05). The 14-day effectivity rate of alteplase was significantly higher than that of argatroban (83.8% vs. 65.2%; χ2 = 131; P = 0.001). The 3-month mRS, ADL and pre-treatment comparisons were statistically significant in the two groups (P < 0.05), while the inter-group comparison was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the outcomes at 3 months after treatment in both groups did not vary significantly (alteplase vs. argatroban: 48/62 vs. 51/69; χ2 = 0.217; P = 0.641). Adverse events during treatment included gingival bleeding (two patients), positive fecal occult blood (two patients), and minor intracranial blood ooze (one patient) in the alteplase group, whereas no adverse events (e.g., bleeding and shock) were noted in the argatroban group.


The short-term efficacy of argatroban in improving neurological function in patients with acute cerebral infarction was significantly lower than that of alteplase. However, the long-term efficacy at 3 months of treatment was comparably significant to that of alteplase with fewer adverse events.

Open Access Research Article Issue
A pilot study of clinical cell therapies in Alzheimer’s disease
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2021, 9 (4): 269-284
Published: 04 January 2022

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease dominated by progressive cognitive dysfunction causing significant social, economic, and medical crises. Cell therapy has demonstrated favorable effects for AD. This pilot study examined the safety and neurorestorative effects of the olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC), olfactory neuron (ON), and Schwann cell (SC) on patients with AD. Seven patients with AD were enrolled in this two-center, randomized, double-blind, and placebo- controlled cell therapy study with a subsequent 12-month follow-up. We randomly assigned one or two participants in OEC, ON, and SC therapy or OEC combined with ON and placebo control. All enrolled patients were injected cells or medium into the olfactory sub-mucosa. They got an assessment of Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Clinical Dementia Rating before treatment and 1, 3, 6, 12 months after treatment. We performed MRI or CT scans before treatment and 12 months after treatment. After integrating the results from the three evaluation methods, all cell types showed better results than a placebo control. ON and SC seem to exhibit more vital potential neurorestorative ability to enhance or convert the neurological functions of patients with AD, and OEC may help AD patients keep neurological functions stable. In this pilot study, there was no adverse or side-effect event. The results of this study strongly suggest conducting a phase II clinical trial of ON, SC, and OEC therapy to prove their neurorestorative effect on patients with AD.

Open Access Research Article Issue
Analysis of risk factors of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2021, 9 (4): 245-254
Published: 04 January 2022

To analyze the risk factors of delayed encephalopathy in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) and to investigate the clinical significance and clinical value.


The baseline data from 68 patients admitted in the 981st Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army Joint Logistics Support Force were collected, including sex, age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), history of smoking/drinking, history of DEACMP. Laboratory examination records including cranial CT/MRI, cervical vascular color ultrasonography, cardiac color ultrasonography, blood biochemical markers, blood routine, and blood coagulation function were also collected. Additionally, patients were followed-up visited at 1 month and 6 months. Patients were divided into either the DEACMP group or the NDEACMP group according to the occurrence of DEACMP. The risk factors of DEACMP were identified by univariate and logistic regression analyses. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of each index were compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.


Among the 68 patients, 13 patients suffered from DEACMP with an incidence of 19.1%. Univariate analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in patients’ age, blood glucose, blood glucose/potassium, GCS scores, abnormal cranial CT/MRI, and coma time more than 4 h (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that B, SE, Wald, df, P, Exp (B) of GCS score were -0.489, 0.208, 5.55, 1, 0.018 and 0.634, respectively. Overall, GCS score is correlated with DEACMP’s occurrence. ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity, specificity, and the AUC of GCS scores were 0.769, 0.873 and 0.843, respectively. The AUC of the indices in descending order are: GCS score, blood glucose, blood glucose/potassium and age.


GCS score, blood glucose, blood glucose/potassium, and age are useful predictive factors for the occurrence of DEACMP. Among these, GCS score is the most significant predictive factor.

Open Access Special Report Issue
Clinical diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines of stroke neurorestoration (2020 China version)
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2020, 8 (4): 241-251
Published: 07 February 2021

Stroke is the main cause of death and disability among Chinese, and neurorestoration is an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with stroke. In recent years, many achievements have been made in stroke neurorestoration, but viewpoints for managing stroke vary per discipline. In order to promote standardization of diagnosis and treatment for stroke neurorestoration, the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (CANR; Preparatory) and China Committee of International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR-China Committee) organized professional experts in the field to integrate fragmented neurorestorative methods and establish clinical diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for stroke neurorestoration. This guideline includes the diagnosis and staging of stroke and therapeutic recommendations for neurorestoration at different stages of stroke in order to improve survival and quality of life of stroke patients.

Open Access Research Article Issue
Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation improving cerebral infarction sequela: a case report and literature review
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2019, 7 (2): 82-88
Published: 03 June 2019

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the main cause of long-term disability in the world. Therefore, treatment of the sequelae of stroke is one of the most important challenges in clinical neurotherapy. A 63-year-old Chinese woman with inarticulateness and right limb physical activity disorder for more than 4 months received olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs)-based neurorestorative therapy during the stay in hospital. Her neurological functions improved during 1-year follow-up. This case report showed that OECs therapy could be a treatment option for cerebral infarction sequela.

total 5