Journal of Neurorestoratology 2023, 11 (2): 100054
Published: 26 April 2023
There was much progress in the field of Neurorestoratology in the year of 2022. It included highlighting advances in understanding the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, neurorestorative mechanisms, and clinical treatments as compiled in the 2022 yearbook of Neurorestoratology. There is still controversy about whether amyloid β-protein and tau protein deposition are the reasons for or the results of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. The fabricated images in important key articles that speculated on the reasons for AD pathogenesis were found. Cholinergic deficiency and decrease or loss in strength of glutamatergic synapse, limited or failing bidirectional cholinergic upregulation in early cognitive impairment, or progressive posterior-to-anterior cortical cholinergic denervation could result in the appearance of AD. Exploration of neurorestorative mechanisms were found in more detail ways in neuromodulation, immunomodulation, neurogenesis, neural network or circuitry reconstruction, neuroprotection, nervous structural repair, and neuroplasticity. Several kinds of cell therapies for neurological diseases showed neurorestorative effects in open-label and/or non-randomized clinical studies or trials. However, mesenchymal stromal cells and mononuclear cells did not demonstrate neurorestorative effects or improve the quality of life for patients with neurodegenerative diseases or neurotrauma including stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RDPCTs). Clinical treatments through neurostimulation/neuromodulation and the brain-computer/machine interface yielded positive results in AD, Parkinson's disease, stroke, SCI, cerebral palsy, and other diseases in RDPCTs. Neurorestorative surgery, pharmaceutical neurorestorative therapy and other interventions have demonstrated neurorestorative effects for various considered incurable neurological diseases in RDPCTs. Thus, this year, additional guidelines, assessment scales, and standards were set up or revised. These included guidelines of clinical neurorestorative treatments for brain trauma (2022 China version), clinical cell therapy guidelines for neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2022), SCI or dysfunction quality of life rating scale (SCIDQLRS) (IANR 2022 version). Neurorestorative effects of varying therapeutic strategies with higher standards of evidence-based medicine are now benefiting patients with currently incurable neurological diseases. Hopefully some of them may become routine therapeutic interventions for patients with these diseases in the near future.