Open Access Review Article Issue
Overview of the winning approaches in 2022 World Robot Contest Championship–Asynchronous SSVEP
Brain Science Advances 2023, 9 (3): 155-165
Published: 05 September 2023

In recent years, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) electroencephalogram paradigm has gained considerable attention owing to its high information transfer rate. Several approaches have been proposed to improve the performance of SSVEP-based brain–computer interface (BCI) systems. In SSVEP-based BCIs, the asynchronous scenario poses a challenge as the subjects stare at the screen without synchronization signals from the system. The algorithm must distinguish whether the subject is being stimulated or not, which presents a significant challenge for accurate classification. In the 2022 World Robot Contest Championship, several effective algorithm frameworks were proposed by participating teams to address this issue in the SSVEP competition. The efficacy of the approaches employed by five teams in the final round is demonstrated in this study, and an overview of their methods is provided. Based on the final score, this paper presents a comparative analysis of five algorithms that propose distinct asynchronous recognition frameworks via diverse statistical methods to differentiate between intentional control state and non-control state based on dynamic window strategies. These algorithms achieve an impressive information transfer rate of 89.833 and a low false positive rate of 0.073. This study provides an overview of the algorithms employed by different teams to address asynchronous scenarios in SSVEP-based BCIs and identifies potential future avenues for research in this area.

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