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Open Access Review Article Issue
Overview of the winning approaches in 2022 World Robot Contest Championship–Asynchronous SSVEP
Brain Science Advances 2023, 9 (3): 155-165
Published: 05 September 2023
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In recent years, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) electroencephalogram paradigm has gained considerable attention owing to its high information transfer rate. Several approaches have been proposed to improve the performance of SSVEP-based brain–computer interface (BCI) systems. In SSVEP-based BCIs, the asynchronous scenario poses a challenge as the subjects stare at the screen without synchronization signals from the system. The algorithm must distinguish whether the subject is being stimulated or not, which presents a significant challenge for accurate classification. In the 2022 World Robot Contest Championship, several effective algorithm frameworks were proposed by participating teams to address this issue in the SSVEP competition. The efficacy of the approaches employed by five teams in the final round is demonstrated in this study, and an overview of their methods is provided. Based on the final score, this paper presents a comparative analysis of five algorithms that propose distinct asynchronous recognition frameworks via diverse statistical methods to differentiate between intentional control state and non-control state based on dynamic window strategies. These algorithms achieve an impressive information transfer rate of 89.833 and a low false positive rate of 0.073. This study provides an overview of the algorithms employed by different teams to address asynchronous scenarios in SSVEP-based BCIs and identifies potential future avenues for research in this area.

Open Access Research Article Issue
Overview of the winning approaches in BCI Controlled Robot Contest in World Robot Contest 2021: Calibration-free SSVEP
Brain Science Advances 2022, 8 (2): 99-110
Published: 29 June 2022
Abstract PDF (2.9 MB) Collect
Downloads:252

Recently, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has become one of the most popular electroencephalography paradigms due to its high information transfer rate. Several approaches have been proposed to improve the performance of SSVEP. The calibration- free scenario is significant in SSVEP-based brain-computer interface systems, where the subject is the first time to use the system. The participating teams proposed several effective calibration-free algorithm frameworks in the SSVEP competition (calibration-free) of the BCI Controlled Robot Contest in World Robot Contest 2021. This paper introduces the approaches used in the algorithms of the top five teams in the final. The results of the five subjects in the final proved the effectiveness of the approaches. This paper discusses the effectiveness of each approach in improving the system performance in the calibration-free scenario and gives suggestions on how to use these approaches in a real-world system.

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