Open Access Research Article Issue
Crystallographic orientation dependence on nanoscale friction behavior of energetic β-HMX crystal
Friction 2023, 11 (12): 2264-2277
Published: 13 March 2023

Tribology behaviors of energetic crystals play critical roles in the friction-induced hotspot in high-energy explosive, however, the binder and energetic crystals are not distinguished properly in previous investigations. In this study, for the first time, the nanoscale friction of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal is studied with nanoscratch tests under the ramping load mode. The results show that the nanoscale friction and wear of β-HMX crystal, as a typical energetic material, is highly depended on the applied load. The friction coefficient of β-HMX crystal is initially high when no discernible wear is observed, and then it decreases to a stable value which varies from ~0.2 to ~0.7, depending on the applied load, scratch direction, and crystal planes. The β-HMX (011) surfaces show weakly friction and wear anisotropy behavior; in contrast, the β-HMX (110) surfaces show strongly friction and wear anisotropy behavior where the friction coefficient, critical load for the elastic–plastic deformation transition and plastic–cracking deformation transition, and deformation index at higher normal load are highly depended on the scratch directions. Further analyses indicate the slip system and direction of β-HMX surfaces play key roles in determining the nanoscale friction and wear of β-HMX surfaces. The obtained results can provide deeper insight into the friction and wear of energetic crystal materials.

Open Access Research Article Issue
Quantitative analysis of the tribological properties of phosphate glass at the nano- and macro-scales
Friction 2021, 9 (5): 1138-1149
Published: 19 November 2020

Processing (grinding, polishing) of phosphate laser (PL) glass involves material removal at two vastly different (spatial) scales. In this study, the nano- and macro-tribological properties of PL glass are investigated by rubbing the glass against a SiO2 counter-surface in both dry and humid conditions. The results indicate that the friction of the PL glass/SiO2 pair has opposing trends at the nano- and macro-scales. At the nanoscale, the friction coefficient (COF) in humid air is much higher than in dry air, which is attributed to the capillary effect of the absorbed water-film at the interface. At the macroscale, on the other hand, the COF in humid air is lower than in dry air, because the water-related mechanochemical wear makes the worn surface less susceptible to cracking. Material removal for PL glass is better facilitated by humid air than by dry air at both scales, because the stress-enhanced hydrolysis accelerates the material-removal process in glass. Moreover, the material-removal is more sensitive to contact pressure at the macroscale, because stronger mechanical-interaction occurs during material removal at the macroscale with the multi asperity contact mode. At the macroscale, the material removal is more sensitive to contact pressure in humid air compared to dry air. Because almost all mechanical energy is used to remove material in humid air, and most of the mechanical energy is used to produce cracks in PL glass in dry air. The results of this study can help optimize the multi-scale surface processing of optical glasses.

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