The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based speller has emerged as a widely adopted paradigm in current brain–computer interface (BCI) systems due to its rapid processing and consistent performance across different individuals. Calibration-free SSVEP algorithms, as opposed to their calibration-based counterparts, offer clear and intuitive mathematical principles, making them accessible to novice developers. During the World Robot Contest (WRC) 2022, participants in the undergraduate category utilized various approaches to accomplish target detection in the calibration-free setting, successfully implementing the algorithms using MATLAB. The winning approach achieved an average information transfer rate of 198.94 bits/min in the final test, which is notably high given the calibration-free scenario. This paper presents an introduction to the underlying principles of the selected methods, accompanied by a comparison of their effectiveness through analysis of results from both the final test and offline experiments. Additionally, we propose that the youth competition of WRC could serve as an ideal starting point for beginners interested in studying and developing their own BCI systems.
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Life Sciences and Medicine