Open Access Just accepted
A Blockchain-based Copyright Management Scheme for Open-source Software and Hardware Designs
Tsinghua Science and Technology
Available online: 04 January 2024

Plagiarism in software code and hardware design threatens the open-source movement and the software and hardware industries. It is essential to differentiate between the unethical act of plagiarism and the legitimate use of open-source resources. Existing copyright protection measures, such as license design, inadequately address copyright ownership and protection issues. Furthermore, they fail to detect plagiarism methods for opensource hardware projects, such as circuit location modification. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a blockchain-based copyright management scheme, which introduces a general originality detection model based on community detection, extracting adjustable granularity digests from code and design files. These digests are stored on a peer-to-peer blockchain, enabling nodes to verify the originality via smart contracts. Additionally, the scheme improves the storage structure, protecting the rights of authors and contributors. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and runtime efficiency of the proposed model in extracting digests for blockchain storage while maintaining verification accuracy. The scheme offers enhanced generality, practical performance, and suitability for distributed development and maintenance, with considerable implications for evidence gathering, fostering innovation and integrity.

Open Access Issue
A Review of Blockchain Solutions in Supply Chain Traceability
Tsinghua Science and Technology 2023, 28 (3): 500-510
Published: 13 December 2022

The supply chain plays an important role in daily life, and its traceability ensures product quality and safety. Therefore, an efficient and reliable solution to improve supply chain traceability is urgently needed. Because of its advantages of being decentralized, tamper-proof, and transparent, the emerging blockchain technology should address the problems of unreliable data and low tracking efficiency in traditional traceability systems. This paper explores blockchain-based supply chain traceability solutions, reviews recent research, and identifies challenges. First, the basics of blockchain are introduced, and the traditional traceability model and stakeholder needs are described. Then, the existing publications and enterprise applications are reviewed and analyzed in detail. Using blockchain is found to bring many benefits. It is also found that the current academic solutions are mostly based on mainstream blockchain platforms and lack specific and comprehensive evaluation. Finally, challenges and future research questions are discussed. Future research could focus on designing targeted consensus mechanisms, designing appropriate access control, the role of regulators in the supply chain, etc. This review shows that blockchain has great potential to address traceability issues, but many challenges remain.

Open Access Issue
Self-Renewal Consortium Blockchain Based on Proof of Rest and Strong Smart Contracts
Tsinghua Science and Technology 2022, 27 (6): 964-972
Published: 21 June 2022

Focusing on the business alliance scenario in blockchains, this paper proposes a new consensus mechanism named proof of rest (PoR) and strong smart contracts. The block structure and logic of PoR consensus are described. And a consortium blockchain system supporting strong smart contracts is designed. We modify the difficulty value algorithm based on proof of work (PoW) and add adjustable parameters. The longer a node rests after creating a block, the less difficult it is to create another new block, hence the term PoR. The penalty for slack nodes, the joining and quitting of nodes, and the adjustment of the expected block creation time can all be accomplished using the strong smart contracts, so the consortium blockchain can realize self-renewal.

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