Graphene-integrated waveguides (GIWGs) have shown immense potential for applications in next-generation datacom technology due to graphene’s compactness and its functional complementarity with traditional optical waveguides. However, the fabrication techniques of GIWGs lack scalability for commercial applications. Here we discuss the recent developments of GIWGs in two-dimensional optoelectronics by focusing on their properties, wave–matter interaction mechanisms, and fabrication techniques. We highlight representative advances on the advantages and potential applications of GIWGs in telecom networks. Finally, we outline major challenges and development trends to bridge the gap between proof-of-concept demonstrations and practical applications.
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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology