Open Access Review Issue
Progression in translational research on spinal cord injury based on microenvironment imbalance
Bone Research 2022, 10: 35
Published: 08 April 2022

Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to loss of motor and sensory function below the injury level and imposes a considerable burden on patients, families, and society. Repair of the injured spinal cord has been recognized as a global medical challenge for many years. Significant progress has been made in research on the pathological mechanism of spinal cord injury. In particular, with the development of gene regulation, cell sequencing, and cell tracing technologies, in-depth explorations of the SCI microenvironment have become more feasible. However, translational studies related to repair of the injured spinal cord have not yielded significant results. This review summarizes the latest research progress on two aspects of SCI pathology: intraneuronal microenvironment imbalance and regenerative microenvironment imbalance. We also review repair strategies for the injured spinal cord based on microenvironment imbalance, including medications, cell transplantation, exosomes, tissue engineering, cell reprogramming, and rehabilitation. The current state of translational research on SCI and future directions are also discussed. The development of a combined, precise, and multitemporal strategy for repairing the injured spinal cord is a potential future direction.

Open Access Editorial Issue
A brief introduction to the thematic series of neurorestoration in neurotrauma
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2018, 6 (1): 17-18
Published: 26 June 2018
Open Access Review Issue
Epidemiology of worldwide spinal cord injury: a literature review
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2018, 6 (1): 1-9
Published: 26 June 2018
Study design:

A literature review of worldwide epidemiology of spinal cord injury (SCI).


To review the epidemiological indicators of SCI, such as incidence, prevalence, demographic characteristics, etiology, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality.


The Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Heping District, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China.


We searched articles published in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and the Web of Science between January 1993 and June 2017 using the key words “spinal cord injury”, “traumatic spinal cord injury”, “non-traumatic spinal cord injury” and “epidemiology”. The incidence, etiology, prevalence, patient demographics, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality were reviewed from the articles.


The epidemiology of SCI has changed. Motor vehicle accidents and falls have become the most common reasons of injury gradually. Incidence of SCI varies by regions or countries, and it has gradually increased with the expansion of human activities. The number of male patients were significantly more than female, the average age of patients with SCI had a tendency to increase gradually. The cervical level of spine was the most common part of injury; there were more number of patients with tetraplegia than patients with paraplegia. Electrolyte disturbances, pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections and bedsores were the four most common complications.


We must have a greater understanding of epidemiology to implement more preventative measures. The epidemiology in different regions is of significant difference, which may be resulted from economic, science and technology, medical, geographical and even social conditions. Therefore, we must establish appropriate intervention measures according to the particularity of population.

Open Access Review Issue
Stem cell-based therapies to treat spinal cord injury: a review
Journal of Neurorestoratology 2017, 5 (1): 125-131
Published: 03 July 2017

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition and major burden on society and individuals. Currently, neurorestorative strategies, including stem cell therapy products or mature/functionally differentiated cell-derived cell therapy products, can restore patients with chronic complete SCI to some degree of neurological functions. The stem cells for neurorestoration include neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, etc. A better understanding of the merits, demerits and precise function of different stem cells in the treatment of SCI may aid in the development of neurorestorative strategies. However, the efficacy, safety and ethical concerns of stem cell-based therapy continue to be challenged. Nonetheless, stem cell-based therapies hold promise of widespread applications, particularly in areas of SCI, and have the potential to be novel therapeutics, which contributes to the repair of SCI. This review mainly focused on recent advances regarding the stem cell-based therapies in the treatment of SCI and discussed future perspectives in this field.

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