Repair and regeneration of the injured peripheral nerve (PN) is a challenging issue in clinics. Although the regeneration outcome of large PN defects is currently unsatisfactory, recently, the study of PN repair has considerably progressed. In particular, biomaterials for repairing PNs, such as nerve guidance conduits and nerve repair membranes, have been well developed. Herein, we summarize the anatomy of the PN, the pathophysiological features of the nerve injury, and the repair process post injury. Then, we highlight the progress in the development of natural and synthetic biomaterials and summarize the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of these materials. These materials can be used as nerve repair membranes and nerve conduits in the field of PN repair. Finally, we discuss the challenges encountered and development strategies for PN repair in the future.
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Life Sciences and Medicine