Open Access Research Article Issue
Adsorption limitation investigation on olefins for Cu–BTC
Friction 2024, 12 (4): 606-617
Published: 24 August 2023

To utilize Cu–benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu–BTC) adsorbed lubricant oils in the self-lubricating field, the adsorption properties of Cu–BTC on different 1-olefins must be clarified. In this work, 1-hexene, 1-octene, 1-nonene, 1-decene, 1-undecene, and 1-dodecene were studied by the Monte Carlo method and experimentally. The adsorption limit of Cu–BTC for n-olefins was determined as 1-undecene by the adsorption isotherms. This suggested a limit for even straight-chain molecules to the adsorption of Cu–BTC. The maximum ratio of the olefin length of the largest pore diameter (L/D) of Cu–BTC was approximately 1.57. Furthermore, theoretical calculations (radial distribution function (RDF)) and experiments (infrared (IR) spectra) confirmed the interaction of n-olefin adsorbates and the Cu–BTC framework occurred between the –CH= of olefins and the Cu and O atoms of the Cu–BTC framework. This work adds to the understanding and investigation of the adsorption of liquid lubricants using Cu–BTC as a metal–organic framework (MOF).

Open Access Research Article Issue
Superlubricity induced by partially oxidized black phosphorus on engineering steel
Friction 2023, 11 (9): 1592-1605
Published: 23 March 2023

Macroscale superlubricity has attracted increasing attention owing to its high significance in engineering and economics. We report the superlubricity of engineering materials by the addition of partially oxidized black phosphorus (oBP) in an oleic acid (OA) oil environment. The phosphorus oxides produced by active oxidation exhibit lower friction and quick deposition performance compared to BP particles. The H-bond (–COOH···O–P, or –COOH···O=P) formed between P–O bond (or P=O) and OA molecule could benefit the lubricating state and decrease the possibility of direct contact between rough peaks. The analysis of the worn surface indicates that a three-layer tribofilm consisting of amorphous carbon, BP crystal, and phosphorus oxide forms during the friction, which replaces the shear interface from the steel/steel to carbon–oBP/carbon–oBP layer and enables macroscale superlubricity.

Open Access Editorial Issue
Guest editorial: Special Issue on Biomedical Tribology
Friction 2022, 10 (1): 2-3
Published: 07 December 2021

Open Access Review Article Issue
A review on tribology of polymer composite coatings
Friction 2021, 9 (3): 429-470
Published: 28 November 2020

Self-lubricating polymer composite coatings, with tailorable tribological and mechanical properties, have been widely employed on mechanical parts to reduce friction and wear, which saves energy and improves the overall performance for applications such as aerospace satellite parts, shafts, gears, and bushings. The addition of functional fillers can overcome the limitations of single-polymer coatings and extend the service life of the coatings by providing a combination of low friction, high wear resistance, high load bearing, high temperature resistance, and high adhesion. This paper compares the heat resistance, and the tribological and mechanical properties of common polymer matrices, as well as the categories of functional fillers that improve the coating performance. Applicable scopes, process parameters, advantages, and limitations of the preparation methods of polymer coatings are discussed in detail. The tribological properties of the composite coatings with different matrices and fillers are compared, and the lubrication mechanisms are analyzed. Fillers reduce friction by promoting the formation of transfer films or liquid shear films. Improvement of the mechanical properties of the composite coatings with fillers of different morphologies is described in terms of strengthening and toughening mechanisms, including a stress transfer mechanism, shear yielding, crack bridging, and interfacial debonding. The test and enhancement methods for the adhesion properties between the coating and substrate are discussed. The coating adhesion can be enhanced through mechanical treatment, chemical treatment, and energy treatment of the substrate. Finally, we propose the design strategies for high-performance polymer composite coating systems adapted to specific operating conditions, and the limitations of current polymer composite coating research are identified.

Open Access Review Article Issue
Mechanical and tribological properties of nanocomposites incorporated with two-dimensional materials
Friction 2020, 8 (5): 813-846
Published: 11 June 2020

In recent years, attempts to improve the mechanical properties of composites have increased remarkably owing to the inadequate utilization of matrices in demanding technological systems where efficiency, durability, and environmental compatibility are the key requirements. The search for novel materials that can potentially have enhanced mechanical properties continues. Recent studies have demonstrated that two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can act as excellent reinforcements because they possess high modulus of elasticity, high strength, and ultralow friction. By incorporating 2D nanomaterials in a composite, 2D nanomaterial-based composites (2DNBCs) have been developed. In view of this, a critical review of recent mechanical and tribological studies based on 2DNBCs has been undertaken. Matrices such as polymers, ceramics, and metals, as well as most of the representative 2D nanomaterial reinforcements such as graphene, boron nitride (BN), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) have been included in this review. Their preparation strategies, intrinsic mechanical properties, friction and lubrication performances, strengthening mechanisms, influencing factors, and potential applications have been comprehensively discussed. A brief summary and prospects are given in the final part, which would be useful in designing and fabricating advanced 2D nanocomposites in the future.

Open Access Review Article Issue
Electrical bearing failures in electric vehicles
Friction 2020, 8 (1): 4-28
Published: 23 January 2020

In modern electric equipment, especially electric vehicles, inverter control systems can lead to complex shaft voltages and bearing currents. Within an electric motor, many parts have electrical failure problems, and among which bearings are the most sensitive and vulnerable components. In recent years, electrical failures in bearing have been frequently reported in electric vehicles, and the electrical failure of bearings has become a key issue that restricts the lifetime of all-electric motor-based power systems in a broader sense. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the bearing premature failure in the mechanical systems exposed in an electrical environment represented by electric vehicles. The electrical environments in which bearing works including the different components and the origins of the shaft voltages and bearing currents, as well as the typical modes of electrical bearing failure including various topographical damages and lubrication failures, have been discussed. The fundamental influence mechanisms of voltage/current on the friction/ lubrication properties have been summarized and analyzed, and corresponding countermeasures have been proposed. Finally, a brief introduction to the key technical flaws in the current researches will be made and the future outlook of frontier directions will be discussed.

Open Access Research Article Issue
Ultralow friction polymer composites incorporated with mono-dispersed oil microcapsules
Friction 2021, 9 (1): 29-40
Published: 09 September 2019

Ultralow friction polymer composites were prepared by adding oil-loaded microcapsules into epoxy (EP) resin. Mono-dispersed polystyrene (PS)/poly alpha olefin (PAO) microcapsules with a diameter of ~2 μm and a shell thickness of ~30 nm were prepared by solvent evaporation method in an oil-in-water emulsion. The lubrication behaviors of the EP resin composites with oil-loaded microcapsules have been investigated under different loads and sliding speeds. As compared with the pure EP resin, the friction coefficient of the composite could be reduced to 4% (from 0.71 to 0.028) and the wear rate could be decreased up to two orders of magnitude. It was demonstrated that the released PAO oil from the microcapsules during the friction process produced a boundary lubricating film, which could prevent the direct contact of two rubbing surfaces, and thus leading to an extremely low friction coefficient and wear rate. Moreover, the composites with microcapsules could achieve comparable lubrication properties to the case under the external lubrication condition, while the former case could effectively minimize the lubricant leakage and improve the lubrication efficiency.

Open Access Research Article Issue
Black phosphorus as a new lubricant
Friction 2018, 6 (1): 116-142
Published: 07 February 2018

In recent years, a new 2D-layered material—black phosphorus (BP)—has been a rising star after the era of graphene owing to its high charge carrier mobility, tunable direct bandgap and unique in-plane anisotropic structure. With the development of the synthesis and modification methods of BP, its extensive applications, e.g., transistors, batteries and optoelectronics have emerged. In order to explore its full potential, research into the tribological properties of BP 2D-layered materials such as lubrication additives and fillers in self-lubricating composite materials would be not only of high scientific value but also of practical significance. In this work, recent advances on the friction and lubrication properties of BP nanosheets made by our group, including the micro-friction properties, the lubrication properties of BP nanosheets as water-based and oil-based lubrication additives, and the friction and wear of BP/PVDF composites will be presented. Finally, the future challenges and opportunities in the use of BP materials as lubricants will be discussed.

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