AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
PDF (5.1 MB)
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Application of Aloe vera Gel Blended Polymer-Collagen Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Marwa Abdul Muhsien Hassan1( )Asmaa Hadi Mohammed2Ekhlas Majeed Hameed3
Department of Physics, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
College of Medical, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq
Show Author Information

Graphical Abstract


Osteoblasts have an essential role in the process of bone formation, and polymer-collagen-Aloe vera (AV) is known to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and maturation. In this translational study, the effects of scaffolds on bone healing and the potential mechanisms responsible were investigated using an animal model of bone defects. Here, following surgical introduction of a bone defect in the proximal femurs of male rabbits, the left femur was implanted with scaffolds for 21 days, then compared to the right femur, which served as a control. According to histological analyses, the use of scaffolds did not result in hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. In contrast to the control group, imaging using X-ray transmission and microcomputed tomography revealed that scaffold implantation boosted the bone repair. In addition, microcomputed tomographic and bone histomorphometric assays in the scaffold-treated group exposed an expansion in the formation of new trabecular bone. Furthermore, scaffold implantation resulted in a considerable increase in trabecular bone thickness but a decrease in the trabecular parameter factor. Following scaffold implantation, the quantities of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, biomarkers capable of simulating bone development, were found to have gradually increased. Overall, this translational study found that scaffolds can improve bone repair by increasing trabecular bone creation via upregulation of Runx2-mediated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression. Our findings therefore suggest that scaffolds can be used to treat bone problems such as deformities and fractures.



E.García-Gareta, M.J. Coathup, G.W. Blunn. Osteoinduction of bone grafting materials for bone repair and regeneration. Bone, 2015, 81: 112−121.


V.L. Zizzari, S.Z. Zara, G. Tetè, et al. Biologic and clinical aspects of integration of different bone substitutes in oral surgery: a literature review. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine,Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, 2016, 122(4): 392−402.

A.C. Baptistel, J.M.C.P. Coutinho, E.M.F. Lins Neto, et al. Plantas medicinais utilizadas na Comunidade Santo Antônio, Currais, Sul do Piauí: um enfoque etnobotânico. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 2014, 16: 406–425. (in Portuguese)

C.E. Rios, A.G. Abreu, J.A. Braga Filho, et al. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. improves phagocytic activity and decreases bacterial growth and the systemic inflammatory response in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2017, 8: 148.


M.A. Ghareeb, A.M. Saad, A.M. Abdou, et al. A new Kaempferol glycoside with antioxidant activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides growing in Egypt. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2016, 32: 3053−3061.


K. Drzewiecka, J. Krasowski, M. Krasowski, et al. Mechanical properties of composite material modified with amorphous calcium phosphate. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 2016, 74(1): 22−28.


B. Bisht, A. Hope, A. Mukherjee, et al. Advances in the fabrication of scaffold and 3D printing of biomimetic bone graft. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2021, 49: 1128−1150.


J.A. McGovern, M. Griffin, D.W. Hutmacher. Animal models for bone tissue engineering and modelling disease. Disease Models &Mechanisms, 2018, 11(4): dmm033084.


B. Shen, K. Vardy, P. Hughes, et al. Integrin alpha11 is an Osteolectin receptor and is required for the maintenance of adult skeletal bone mass. eLife, 2018 e42274.


D. Zhao, R. Liu, G. Li, et al. Connexin 43 channels in osteocytes regulate bone responses to mechanical unloading. Frontiers in Physiology, 2020, 11: 299.


T. Ghassemi, A. Shahroodi, M.H. Ebrahimzadeh, et al. Current concepts in scaffolding for bone tissue engineering. The Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2018, 6(2): 90−99.


D. Zhang, X. Wu, J. Chen, et al. The development of collagen based composite scaffolds for bone regeneration. Bioactive Materials, 2018, 3(1): 129−138.

S. Fiorilli, C. Pontremoli, G. Montalbano, et al. Hybrid formulations based on mesoporous bioactive glasses/polymeric phases for the design of bone scaffolds and delivery platforms. In: Bioactive Glasses—Properties, Composition and Recent Applications. D. Arcos, M. Vallet-Regí, eds. NOVA: Nagoya, 2020: 412.

S. Fiorilli, G. Molino, C. Pontremoli, et al. The incorporation of strontium to improve bone-regeneration ability of mesoporous bioactive glasses. Materials, 2018, 11(5): 678.


G. Montalbano, G. Borciani, C. Vitale-Brovarone, et al. Collagen hybrid formulations for the 3D printing of nanostructured bone scaffolds: An optimized genipin-crosslinking strategy. Nanomaterials, 2020, 10: 1681.


J.R. Perez, D. Kouroupis, D.J. Li, et al. Tissue engineering and cell-based therapies for fractures and bone defects. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2018, 6: 105.


M. Soltani, P. Alizadeh. Aloe vera incorporated starch-64S bioactive glass-quail egg shell scaffold for promotion of bone regeneration. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2022, 217: 203−218.


S. Boonyagul, W. Banlunara, P. Sangvanich, et al. Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Odontology, 2014, 102(2): 310−317.


M.A.M. Hassan, A.H. Mohammed, Z. K. Hamzh. Potential role of laser therapy on scaffold implantation for osteogenesis and regeneration with microbial protection. BioNanoScience, 2022, 12: 1059−1085.


R. Senthil, S.B. Kavukcu. Efficacy of glycoprotein-based nanocurcumin/silk fibroin electrospun scaffolds: Perspective for bone apatite formation. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2022, 289: 126444.


R. Senthil, Ç. Sinem, S.B. Kavukcu, et al. Fabrication of cylindrical bone graft substitute supported by reduced graphene-oxide and nanocurcumin to promotes the bone tissue development. Materials Letters, 2022, 322: 132475.


S. Rethinam, S. Vijayan, B. Basaran, et al. Enhanced tissue regeneration using an nano-bioactive scaffold-A novel perspective. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2020, 240: 122303.

Nano Biomedicine and Engineering
Pages 118-125
Cite this article:
Hassan MAM, Mohammed AH, Hameed EM. Application of Aloe vera Gel Blended Polymer-Collagen Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, 2023, 15(2): 118-125.










Received: 22 May 2022
Revised: 18 February 2023
Accepted: 03 April 2023
Published: 16 June 2023
© The Author(s) 2023.

This is an open-access article distributed under  the  terms  of  the  Creative  Commons  Attribution  4.0 International  License (CC BY) (, which  permits  unrestricted  use,  distribution,  and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.