AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
View PDF
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Fabrication and mechanical behavior of 2D-Cf/TaxHf1−xC–SiC composites by a low-temperature and highly-efficient route

Xuegang Zoua,b,cDewei Nia,b,d( )Bowen Chena,bFeiyan Caia,b,cLe Gaoa,bPing Hea,bYusheng Dinga,bXiangyu Zhanga,bShaoming Donga,b( )
State Key Laboratory of High-Performance Ceramics & Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
Structural Ceramics and Composites Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China
Show Author Information

Graphical Abstract


Cf/TaxHf1−xC–SiC composites are ideal thermal structural materials for service under extreme conditions of hypersonic vehicles. However, how to synthesize TaxHf1-xC powders and efficiently fabricate Cf/TaxHf1-xC–SiC composites still faces some challenges. Furthermore, mechanical properties and thermophysical properties of TaxHf1−xC vary with the composition, but not monotonically. In-depth analysis of mechanical behaviors of the Cf/TaxHf1−xC–SiC composites is extremely important for their development and applications. In this study, the TaxHf1−xC powders (x = 0.2, 0.5, 0.8) were successfully synthesized via solid solution of TaC and HfC at a relatively low temperature of 1800 ℃, with a small amount of Si as an additive. Subsequently, the efficient fabrication of 2D-Cf/TaxHf1–xC–SiC composites was achieved by slurry impregnation and lamination (SIL) combined with precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP). In addition, the mechanical behavior of the composites was investigated systematically. It is demonstrated that the composites present remarkable non-brittle fractures, including a large number of fiber pull out and interphase debonding. Also, the fracture failure involves a complex process of microcrack generation and propagation, matrix cracking, and layer fracture. Moreover, the interfacial bonding between the fibers and the matrix is enhanced as the Ta∶Hf ratio decreases from 4∶1 to 1∶4. As a result, Cf/Ta0.2Hf0.8C–SiC composites exhibit exceptional flexural strength of 437±19 MPa, improved by 46% compared with Cf/Ta0.8Hf0.2C–SiC (299±19 MPa). This study provides a new perception of design and fabrication of ultra-high-temperature ceramic (UHTC) matrix composites with high performance.


Padture NP. Advanced structural ceramics in aerospace propulsion. Nat Mater 2016, 15: 804–809.
Chen BW, Ni DW, Liao CJ, et al. Long-term ablation behavior and mechanisms of 2D-Cf/ZrB2–SiC composites at temperatures up to 2400 ℃. Corros Sci 2020, 177: 108967.
Duan LY, Luo L, Liu LP, et al. Ablation of C/SiC–HfC composite prepared by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis in plasma wind tunnel. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 393–402.
Du BH, Cheng Y, Xun LC, et al. Using PyC modified 3D carbon fiber to reinforce UHTC under low temperature sintering without pressure. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 871–884.
Lu J, Ni DW, Liao CJ, et al. Fabrication and microstructure evolution of Csf/ZrB2–SiC composites via direct ink writing and reactive melt infiltration. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 1371–1380.
Ni DW, Cheng Y, Zhang JP, et al. Advances in ultra-high temperature ceramics, composites, and coatings. J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 1–56.
Sciti D, Guicciardi S, Nygren M. Densification and mechanical behavior of HfC and HfB2 fabricated by spark plasma sintering. J Am Ceram Soc 2008, 91: 1433–1440.
Sun WG, Kuang XY, Liang H, et al. Mechanical properties of tantalum carbide from high-pressure/high-temperature synthesis and first-principles calculations. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020, 22: 5018–5023.
Andrievskii RA, Strel’nikova NS, Poltoratskii NI, et al. Melting point in systems ZrC–HfC, TaC–ZrC, TaC–HfC. Sov Powder Metall Met Ceram 1967, 6: 65–67.
Wang BZ, Li DX, Yang ZH, et al. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of in situ nano Ta4HfC5 reinforced SiBCN composite ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 739–748.
Wen QB, Riedel R, Ionescu E. Solid-solution effects on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of polymer-derived (Hf,Ta)C/SiC and (Hf,Ti)C/SiC ceramic nanocomposites. Adv Eng Mater 2019, 21: 1800879.
Smith CJ, Yu XX, Guo QY, et al. Phase, hardness, and deformation slip behavior in mixed HfxTa1−xC. Acta Mater 2018, 145: 142–153.
Kim J, Kwon H, Kim B, et al. Finite temperature thermal expansion and elastic properties of (Hf1−xTax)C ultrahigh temperature ceramics. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 10805–10809.
Zhang C, Boesl B, Agarwal A. Oxidation resistance of tantalum carbide–hafnium carbide solid solutions under the extreme conditions of a plasma jet. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 14798–14806.
Patterson MCL, He S, Fehrenbacher LL, et al. Advanced HfC–TaC oxidation resistant composite rocket thruster. Mater Manuf Process 1996, 11: 367–379.
Cedillos-Barraza O, Grasso S, Al Nasiri N, et al. Sintering behaviour, solid solution formation and characterisation of TaC, HfC and TaC–HfC fabricated by spark plasma sintering. J Eur Ceram Soc 2016, 36: 1539–1548.
Kurbatkina VV, Patsera EI, Levashov EA, et al. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of single-phase binary tantalum-hafnium carbide (Ta,Hf)C and its consolidation by hot pressing and spark plasma sintering. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 4320–4329.
Foroughi P, Zhang C, Agarwal A, et al. Controlling phase separation of TaxHf1–xC solid solution nanopowders during carbothermal reduction synthesis. J Am Ceram Soc 2017, 100: 5056–5065.
Lu Y, Sun YN, Zhang TZ, et al. Polymer-derived Ta4HfC5 nanoscale ultrahigh-temperature ceramics: Synthesis, microstructure and properties. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 205–211.
Sun YN, Yang CM, Lu Y, et al. Transformation of metallic polymer precursor into nanosized HfTaC2 ceramics. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 6022–6028.
Xiao P, Zhu YL, Wang S, et al. Research progress on the preparation and characterization of ultra refractory TaxHf1−xC solid solution ceramics. J Inorg Mater 2021, 36: 685–694. (in Chinese)
Gusev AI. Phase diagram of the pseudobinary TiC–NbC, TiC–TaC, ZrC–NbC, ZrC–TaC and HfC–TaC carbide systems. 1985, 59: 336.
Arianpour F, Golestanifard F, Rezaie H, et al. Processing, phase evaluation and mechanical properties of MoSi2 doped 4TaC–HfC based UHTCs consolidated by spark plasma sintering. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 2016, 56: 1–7.
Ghaffari SA, Faghihi-Sani MA, Golestani-Fard F, et al. Pressureless sintering of Ta0.8Hf0.2C UHTC in the presence of MoSi2. Ceram Int 2013, 39: 1985–1989.
Zou XG, Ni DW, Chen BW, et al. Fabrication and properties of Cf/Ta4HfC5–SiC composite via precursor infiltration and pyrolysis. J Am Ceram Soc 2021, 104: 6601–6610.
Zou XG, Ni DW, Chen BW, et al. Ablation behavior and mechanisms of 3D-Cf/Ta0.8Hf0.2C–SiC composite at temperatures up to 2500 ℃. J Eur Ceram Soc 2023, 43: 1284–1294.
Kim J, Kim M, Roh KM, et al. Bond characteristics, mechanical properties, and high-temperature thermal conductivity of (Hf1–xTax)C composites. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 6298–6308.
Zhang J, Wang S, Li W, et al. Understanding the oxidation behavior of Ta–Hf–C ternary ceramics at high temperature. Corros Sci 2020, 164: 108348.
Tan ZY, Zhu W, Yang L, et al. Microstructure, mechanical properties and ablation behavior of ultra-high-temperature Ta–Hf–C solid solution coating prepared by a step-by-step plasma solid solution method. Surf Coat Technol 2020, 403: 126405.
de Monteynard A, Luo H, Chehimi M, et al. The structure, morphology, and mechanical properties of Ta–Hf–C coatings deposited by pulsed direct current reactive magnetron sputtering. Coatings 2020, 10: 212.
Buet E, Sauder C, Sornin D, et al. Influence of surface fibre properties and textural organization of a pyrocarbon interphase on the interfacial shear stress of SiC/SiC minicomposites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon S and Tyranno SA3 fibres. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 179–188.
Ghaffari SA, Faghihi-Sani MA, Golestani-Fard F, et al. Diffusion and solid solution formation between the binary carbides of TaC, HfC and ZrC. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 2013, 41: 180–184.
Castle E, Csanádi T, Grasso S, et al. Processing and properties of high-entropy ultra-high temperature carbides. Sci Rep 2018, 8: 8609.
Ghaffari SA, Faghihi-Sani MA, Golestani-Fard F, et al. Pressureless sintering of Ta0.8Hf0.2C UHTC in the presence of MoSi2. Ceram Int 2013, 39: 1985–1989.
Maillet E, Godin N, R’Mili M, et al. Real-time evaluation of energy attenuation: A novel approach to acoustic emission analysis for damage monitoring of ceramic matrix composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 1673–1679.
Momon S, Godin N, Reynaud P, et al. Unsupervised and supervised classification of AE data collected during fatigue test on CMC at high temperature. Compos Part A-Appl S 2012, 43: 254–260.
Moevus M, Rouby D, Godin N, et al. Analysis of damage mechanisms and associated acoustic emission in two SiC/[Si–B–C] composites exhibiting different tensile behaviours. Part I: Damage patterns and acoustic emission activity. Compos Sci Technol 2008, 68: 1250–1257.
Xue YD, Wang QL, Hu JB, et al. Acoustic emission and X-ray computed microtomography characterization of damage accumulation in a woven Cf/SiC composite. Mater Charact 2019, 155: 109748.
Vinci A, Zoli L, Galizia P, et al. Influence of Y2O3 addition on the mechanical and oxidation behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced ZrB2/SiC composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 5067–5075.
Rollin M, Jouannigot S, Lamon J, et al. Characterization of fibre/matrix interfaces in carbon/carbon composites. Compos Sci Technol 2009, 69: 1442–1446.
Ding JX, Ma XK, Fan XM, et al. Failure behavior of interfacial domain in SiC-matrix based composites. J Mater Sci Technol 2021, 88: 1–10.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 1961-1972
Cite this article:
Zou X, Ni D, Chen B, et al. Fabrication and mechanical behavior of 2D-Cf/TaxHf1−xC–SiC composites by a low-temperature and highly-efficient route. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2023, 12(10): 1961-1972.








Web of Science






Received: 22 June 2023
Revised: 29 July 2023
Accepted: 29 August 2023
Published: 19 October 2023
© The Author(s) 2023.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit