How to cultivate innovative talents has become an important educational issue nowadays. In China’s long-term mentorship education environment, supervisor-student relationship often affects students’ creativity. From the perspective of students’ psychology, we explore the influence mechanism of supervisor-student relationship on creativity by machine learning and questionnaire survey. In Study 1, based on video interviews with 16 postgraduate students, we use the machine learning method to analyze the emotional states exhibited by the postgraduate students in the videos when associating them with the supervisor-student interaction scenario, finding that students have negative emotions in bad supervisor-student relationship. Subsequently, we further explore the impact of supervisor-student relationship on postgraduate students’ development in supervisor-student interaction scenarios at the affective level. In Study 2, a questionnaire survey is conducted to explore the relationship between relevant variables, finding that a good supervisor-student relationship can significantly reduce power stereotype threat, decrease emotional labor surface behaviors, and promote creativity expression. The above results theoretically reveal the internal psychological processes by which supervisor-student relationship affects creativity, and have important implications for reducing emotional labor and enhancing creativity expression of postgraduate students.
T. M. Amabile, The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 357–376, 1983.
H. Hou, X. Zhang, and D. Wang, Can educational robots improve student creativity: An meta-analysis based on 48 experimental and quasi-experimental studies, J. East China Norm. Univ, no. Educ.Sci., pp. 99–111, 2022.
K. M. Davis, Teaching a course in creative approaches in counseling with children and adolescents, J. Creat. Ment. Health, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 220–232, 2008.
Y. Meng, Postgraduate-supervisor relationship and postgraduates’ creativity: The mediating effect of intrinsic motivation and the determining effect of supervision behaviors, Fudan Educ. Forum, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 20–27, 2016.
J. Gu, Y. Zhang, and H. Liu, Importance of social capital to student creativity within higher education in China, Think. Skills Creat., vol. 12, pp. 14–25, 2014.
P. Truran, The development of creative thinking in graduate students doing scientific research, Educ. Technol., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 41–46, 2016.
Z. Xia, F. Yang, and Q. Xu, Authoritarian-benevolent leadership and its effect on graduate student creativity: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation, J. Creat. Behav., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 25–38, 2021.
B. Yuan and J. Yan, Analyses of present condition of the graduates’ innovative capability and its influencing factors: Based on three large-scale quality surveys of graduate education in China, Peking Univ. Educ. Rev., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 12–20, 2009.
H. Zhu, W. Li, and Z. Zuo, The status of graduate students’ creativity and its influence mechanism, J. Higher Educ., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 74–82, 2011.
J. Gu, X. Wang, and J. Wu, The influence of supervisory pattern on graduate students’ creativity: A perspective from internal-external motivation theory, China Higher Educ. Res., no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2013.
J. Baglin, C. Hart, and S. Stow, The statistical knowledge gap in higher degree by research students: The supervisors’ perspective, Higher Educ. Res. Dev., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 875–889, 2017.
J. Peng, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Ran, Workplace loneliness, leader-member exchange and creativity: The cross-level moderating role of leader compassion, Pers. Individ. Differ., vol. 104, pp. 510–515, 2017.
M. M. Hammond, N. L. Neff, J. L. Farr, A. R. Schwall, and X. Zhao, Predictors of individual-level innovation at work: A meta-analysis, Psychol. Aesth. Creat. Arts, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 90–105, 2011.
J. Jiang and B. Yang, Roles of creative process engagement and leader-member exchange in critical thinking and employee creativity, Soc. Behav. Pers. Int. J., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1217–1231, 2015.
J. Gu, C. He, and H. Liu, Supervisory styles and graduate student creativity: The mediating roles of creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, Stud. Higher Educ., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 721–742, 2017.
B. Yang, S. Bao, and J. Xu, Supervisory styles and graduate student innovation performance: The mediating role of psychological capital and the moderating role of harmonious academic passion, Front. Psychol., vol. 13, p. 1034216, 2022.
J. Luo, Z. Xie, and L. Mo, Tutor-student interaction mode and the development of academic abilities of graduate students: Grounded theory based qualitative analysis, Acad. Degrees Grad. Educ., no. 3, pp. 15–20, 2021.
N. C. Overall, K. L. Deane, and E. R. Peterson, Promoting doctoral students’ research self-efficacy: Combining academic guidance with autonomy support, Higher Educ. Res. Dev., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 791–805, 2011.
J. M. Richards and J. J. Gross, Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 410–424, 2000.
J. J. Gross, Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 224–237, 1998.
J. J. Gross and R. W. Levenson, Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion, J. Abnorm. Psychol., vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 95–103, 1997.
P. M. C. Harrison, T. Collins, and D. Müllensiefen, Applying modern psychometric techniques to melodic discrimination testing: Item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation, Sci. Rep., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 3618, 2017.
K. S. Henwood, S. Chou, and K. D. Browne, A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of CBT informed anger management, Aggress. Violent Behav., vol. 25, pp. 280–292, 2015.
Z. Liu, On a harmonious relationship between supervisors and their students in graduate education, Acad. Degrees Grad. Educ., no. 10, pp. 20–25, 2018.
H. Cheng and Y. Cao, Reflections on constructing harmonious relationship between supervisors and their students, Acad. Degrees Grad. Educ., no. 6, pp. 13–18, 2019.
S. Liu and R. Hu, An exploration of the supervisor-graduate student relationship from a game theory perspective, Acad. Degrees Grad. Educ., no. 5, pp. 45–50, 2015.
M. Xu and Y. Zheng, Tribule reconsideration: Reconstruction of tutor-student relationship at graduate education stage, Res. Educ. Dev., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 77–80, 2007.
J. Tian, Analysis of the basic types and reasonable structure of the relationship between supervisors and postgraduate, J. Grad. Educ., no. 3, pp. 55–58, 2018.
W. K. Rawlins, Teaching as a mode of friendship, Commun. Theory, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5–26, 2000.
R. Shadiev and C. Dang, A systematic review study on integrating technology-assisted intercultural learning in various learning context, Educ. Inf. Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 6753–6785, 2022.
D. Hocevar, Measurement of creativity: Review and critique, J. Pers. Assess., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 450–464, 1981.
M. Hewstone, M. Hassebrauck, A. Wirth, and M. Waenke, Pattern of disconfirming information and processing instructions as determinants of stereotype change, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 399–411, 2000.
J. L. Hilton and W. Von Hippel, Stereotypes, Annu. Rev. Psychol., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 237–271, 1996.
S. T. Fiske, A. J. C. Cuddy, and P. Glick, Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence, Trends Cognit. Sci., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 77–83, 2007.
J. C. Magee and A. D. Galinsky, 8 social hierarchy: The self-reinforcing nature of power and status, Acad. Manage. Ann., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 351–398, 2008.
A. R. Fragale, B. Rosen, C. Xu, and I. Merideth, The higher they are, the harder they fall: The effects of wrongdoer status on observer punishment recommendations and intentionality attributions, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 53–65, 2009.
T. L. Lee and S. T. Fiske, Not an outgroup, not yet an ingroup: Immigrants in the stereotype content model, Int. J. Intercult. Relat., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 751–768, 2006.
A. M. T. Russell and S. T. Fiske, It’s all relative: Competition and status drive interpersonal perception, Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1193–1201, 2008.
J. Yin, G. Wang, and J. Luo, The impact of threats on creativity based on cognitive and emotional processes, Adv. Psychol. Sci., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 815–826, 2021.
C. M. Steele and J. Aronson, Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 797–811, 1995.
T. M. Hess, C. Auman, S. J. Colcombe, and T. A. Rahhal, The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance, J. Gerontol. Ser. B, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. P3–P11, 2003.
B. Levy, Improving memory in old age through implicit self-stereotyping, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 1092–1107, 1996.
J. Blascovich, S. J. Spencer, D. Quinn, and C. Steele, African Americans and high blood pressure: The role of stereotype threat, Psychol. Sci., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 225–229, 2001.
S. L. Beilock, R. J. Rydell, and A. R. McConnell, Stereotype threat and working memory: Mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover, J. Exp. Psychol. Gen., vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 256–276, 2007.
C. Schuster, S. E. Martiny, and T. Schmader, Distracted by the unthought-suppression and reappraisal of mind wandering under stereotype threat, PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 3, p. e0122207, 2015.
S. J. Spencer, C. M. Steele, and D. M. Quinn, Stereotype threat and women’s math performance, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 4–28, 1999.
M. Wraga, L. Duncan, E. C. Jacobs, M. Helt, and J. Church, Stereotype susceptibility narrows the gender gap in imagined self-rotation performance, Psychon. Bull. Rev., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 813–819, 2006.
D. P. Skorich, H. Webb, L. Stewart, M. Kostyanaya, T. Cruwys, K. McNeill, A. J. Frain, L. Lim, B. M. Jones, L. Smyth, et al., Stereotype threat and hazard perception among provisional license drivers, Accid. Anal. Prev., vol. 54, pp. 39–45, 2013.
N. C. J. Yeung and C. von Hippel, Stereotype threat increases the likelihood that female drivers in a simulator run over jaywalkers, Accid. Anal. Prev., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 667–674, 2008.
L. J. Kray, A. D. Galinsky, and L. Thompson, Reversing the gender gap in negotiations: An exploration of stereotype regeneration, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 386–409, 2002.
C. R. Pennington, D. Heim, A. R. Levy, and D. T. Larkin, Twenty years of stereotype threat research: A review of psychological mediators, PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 1, p. e0146487, 2016.
F. Yu and F. Zheng, A review of teachers’ emotional labor studies in abroad: Causal-effect mechanism and management path, (in Chinese), J. Comp. Educ., no. 6, pp. 101–115, 2021.
A. A. Grandey, Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor, J. Occup. Health Psychol., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 95–110, 2000.
J. M. Diefendorff, E. M. Richard, and M. H. Croyle, Are emotional display rules formal job requirements? Examination of employee and supervisor perceptions, J. Occup. Organ. Psychol., vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 273–298, 2006.
A. R. Hochschild, Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure, Am. J. Sociol., vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 551–575, 1979.
L. Yao, J. Gao, C. Chen, and D. Mu, How does emotional labor impact employees’ perceptions of well-being? Examining the mediating role of emotional disorder, Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 23, p. 6798, 2019.
J. Yoo and J. Jeong, The effects of emotional labor on work engagement and boundary spanner creativity, Asia Pac. J. Innov. Ent., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 214–232, 2017.
J. M. Diefendorff, M. H. Croyle, and R. H. Gosserand, The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies, J. Vocat. Behav., vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 339–357, 2005.
J. H. Turner, The sociology of emotions: Basic theoretical arguments, Emotion Rev., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 340–354, 2009.
C. Ma, M. Qu, and R. Wang, On the examination and construction of the supervisor-postgraduate relationship in higher-learning institutions from the perspective of interaction ritual chain theory, J. Grad. Educ., no. 6, pp. 29–34, 2021.
J. Lin and Y. Q. Liu, Rebuild the tower of babel: Formation and attribution of implicit conflict in mentorism, Tsinghua J. Educ., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 73–83, 2022.
E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, The support of autonomy and the control of behavior, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1024–1037, 1987.
Q. He and Y. Liu, Effect of power research and its theoretical explanation from the perspective of psychology, J. Shanghai Admin. Inst., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 75–84, 2020.
J. A. Morris and D. C. Feldman, Managing emotions in the workplace, J. Manag. Issues, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 257–274, 1997.
T. M. Amabile, R. Conti, H. Coon, J. Lazenby, and M. Herron, Assessing the work environment for creativity, Acad. Manage. J., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1154–1184, 1996.
B. M. Staw, L. E. Sandelands, and J. E. Dutton, Threat rigidity effects in organizational behavior: A multilevel analysis, Admin. Sci. Quart., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 501–524, 1981.
K. Hu, A. Bauer, S. Padmala, and L. Pessoa, Threat of bodily harm has opposing effects on cognition, Emotion, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 2012.
F. Xiao, L. Wang, Y. Chen, Z. Zheng, and W. Chen, Dispositional and situational autonomy as moderators of mood and creativity, Creat. Res. J., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 76–86, 2015.
C. Jiang, T. W. Buchanan, Z. Yao, K. Zhang, J. Wu, and L. Zhang, Acute psychological stress disrupts attentional bias to threat-related stimuli, Sci. Rep., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 14607, 2017.
G. Sheppes, R. Luria, K. Fukuda, and J. J. Gross, There’s more to anxiety than meets the eye: Isolating threat-related attentional engagement and disengagement biases, Emotion, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 520–528, 2013.
M. Baas, M. Roskes, S. Koch, Y. J. Cheng, and C. K. W. De Dreu, Why social threat motivates malevolent creativity, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1590–1602, 2019.
L. F. Barrett, Solving the emotion paradox: Categorization and the experience of emotion, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 20–46, 2006.
Z. Geng, C. Liu, X. Liu, and J. Feng, The effects of emotional labor on frontline employee creativity, Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manage., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1046–1064, 2014.
J. Li and C. Liu, The “double-edged sword” effect of employees’ emotional labor on creativity: The mediating role of leaders’ trust, Nanjing J. Soc. Sci., no. 4, pp. 38–45, 2020.
M. Entrialgo and V. Iglesias, Entrepreneurial intentions among university students: The moderating role of creativity, Eur. Manage. Rev., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 529–542, 2020.
H. B. Yin and J. C. K. Lee, Be passionate, but be rational as well: Emotional rules for Chinese teachers’ work, Teach. Teach. Educ., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 56–65, 2012.
Z. Liu, What is the problem with the mentoring relationship?——An analysis based on in-depth interviews, Educ. Res., vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 104–116, 2020.
Q. Wang, Z. Xin, H. Zhang, J. Du, and M. Wang, The effect of the supervisor-student relationship on academic procrastination: The chain-mediating role of academic self-efficacy and learning adaptation, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 19, no. 5, p. 2621, 2022.
D. Zhao, J. Wu, and J. Gu, Can high leader-member exchange spark low creativity among graduate students? The role of stress and personal initiative, Curr. Psychol., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 4488–4499, 2021.
The articles published in this open access journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).