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Research Article | Open Access

Numerical investigation of particle motion at the steel–slag interface in continuous casting using VOF method and dynamic overset grids

Xiaomeng Zhang1,2( )Stefan Pirker2Mahdi Saeedipour2
K1-MET GmbH, Stahlstrasse 14, 4020 Linz, Austria
Department of Particulate Flow Modelling, Johannes Kepler University, 4040 Linz, Austria
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Graphical Abstract


The capillary interactions are prominent for a micro-sized particle at the steel–slag interface. In this study, the dynamics of a spherical particle interacting with the steel–slag interface is numerically investigated using the volume of fluid method in combination with the overset grid technique to account for particle motion. The simulations have shown the particle’s separation process at the interface and successfully captured the formation and continuous evolution of a meniscus in the course of particle motion. A sensitivity analysis on the effect of different physical parameters in the steel–slag–particle system is also conducted. The result indicates that the wettability of particle with the slag phase is the main factor affecting particle separation behavior (trapped at the interface or fully separated into slag). Higher interfacial tension of fluid interface and smaller particle size can speed up the particle motion but have less effect on the equilibrium position for particle staying at the interface. In comparison, particle density shows a minor influence when the motion is dominated by the capillary effect. By taking account of the effect of meniscus and capillary forces on a particle, this study provides a more accurate simulation of particle motion in the vicinity of the steel–slag interface and enables further investigation of more complex situations.


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Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow
Pages 178-191
Cite this article:
Zhang X, Pirker S, Saeedipour M. Numerical investigation of particle motion at the steel–slag interface in continuous casting using VOF method and dynamic overset grids. Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow, 2023, 5(2): 178-191.








Web of Science




Received: 25 June 2021
Revised: 20 November 2021
Accepted: 15 December 2021
Published: 14 January 2022
© The Author(s) 2021

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