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This work is the first to determine that a real quantum computer (including generalized and specialized) can decipher million-scale RSA relying solely on quantum algorithms, showing the real attack potential of D-Wave machines. The influence of different column widths on RSA factorization results is studied on the basis of a multiplication table, and the optimal column method is determined by traversal experiments. The traversal experiment of integer factorization within 10 000 shows that the local field and coupling coefficients are 75%–93% lower than the research of Shanghai University in 2020 and more than 85% lower than that of Purdue University in 2018. Extremely low Ising model parameters are crucial to reducing the hardware requirements, prompting factoring 1 245 407 on the D-Wave 2000Q real machine. D-Wave advantage already has more than 5000 qubits and will be expanded to 7000 qubits during 2023–2024, with remarkable improvements in decoherence and topology. This machine is expected to promote the solution of large-scale combinatorial optimization problems. One of the contributions of this paper is the discussion of the long-term impact of D-Wave on the development of post-quantum cryptography standards.

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Publication history

Received: 26 March 2023
Revised: 12 May 2023
Accepted: 13 June 2023
Available online: 13 September 2023

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© The author(s) 2024.

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The articles published in this open access journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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