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Paper documents experience severe acidification and embrittlement. Nanocellulose is an excellent reinforcement material for paper documents owing to its compatibility and excellent mechanical strength. However, little research has been conducted on the aging resistance of nanocellulose-reinforced paper. In this study, six types of nanocelluloses were used to reinforce aged paper. The reinforcement and anti-aging performances were evaluated, and the anti-aging mechanism was further clarified. Nanocellulose with a high degree of polymerization can better enhance aged paper, and non-chemical nanocellulose also shows better anti-aging performance, such as nanocellulose prepared by mechanical or biological methods. However, nanocellulose prepared using chemical methods exhibits poor reinforcement and anti-aging performance. This is because it has a small particle size that is not beneficial for physical crosslinking with paper fibers. More importantly, the introduction of acidic or oxidizing groups on nanocellulose accelerates the acid hydrolysis and oxidation rate of paper fibers, especially nanocellulose prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl oxidation, which should not be used to protect paper documents.


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Aging Resistance Evaluation of Aged Paper Reinforced with Different Nanocelluloses

Show Author's information Xian Cao1,2Bei He1,2Jianlin Wang1,2Chunhui Zhang1,2Donglin Tang3Qingyou Liang4Chuanfu Liu1,2Huiming Fan1,2Junli Ren1,2( )
State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, School of Light Industry and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510640, China
Lingnan Literature Preservation Research Center, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510640, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510640, China
Analytical and Testing Center, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510640, China

Abstract

Paper documents experience severe acidification and embrittlement. Nanocellulose is an excellent reinforcement material for paper documents owing to its compatibility and excellent mechanical strength. However, little research has been conducted on the aging resistance of nanocellulose-reinforced paper. In this study, six types of nanocelluloses were used to reinforce aged paper. The reinforcement and anti-aging performances were evaluated, and the anti-aging mechanism was further clarified. Nanocellulose with a high degree of polymerization can better enhance aged paper, and non-chemical nanocellulose also shows better anti-aging performance, such as nanocellulose prepared by mechanical or biological methods. However, nanocellulose prepared using chemical methods exhibits poor reinforcement and anti-aging performance. This is because it has a small particle size that is not beneficial for physical crosslinking with paper fibers. More importantly, the introduction of acidic or oxidizing groups on nanocellulose accelerates the acid hydrolysis and oxidation rate of paper fibers, especially nanocellulose prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl oxidation, which should not be used to protect paper documents.

Keywords: reinforcement, nanocellulose, protection of paper documents, aging resistance

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Publication history

Received: 06 June 2023
Accepted: 20 June 2023
Published: 25 July 2023
Issue date: July 2023

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© 2023 Published by Paper and Biomaterials Editorial Board.

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of South China University of Technology (SCUT), China (No. 2022ZYGXZR106), and Science and Technology Plan Special Project of Guangzhou, China (No. GZDD201808).

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The articles published in this open access journal are distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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