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Porous inorganic materials such as mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), porous calcium phosphates, and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are used for bone regeneration due to their osteoinductive and porous properties. The direct osteogenesis ability can be adjusted by the design and composition of those inorganic materials. With porous structure, adjustable pore size and high surface area, they are used as carriers to deliver various small molecular drugs, proteins, and genes locally to promote bone generation. The surface of those porous inorganic materials can be further functionalized to control the loading and release of drugs and modulate the behaviour of host cells. This review summarizes the recent advances of various porous inorganic nanomaterials for bone repairing with a focus on their performance as scaffolds and drug delivery systems. We also discuss the challenges and prospects of porous inorganic nanomaterials for the future clinical application for bone regeneration.

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Advances in porous inorganic nanomaterials for bone regeneration

Show Author's information Huan Dai1,2Sepanta Hosseinpour1,2Shu Hua1,2Chun Xu1,2( )
School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia
Centre for Orofacial Regeneration, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation (COR3), School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia


Porous inorganic materials such as mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), porous calcium phosphates, and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are used for bone regeneration due to their osteoinductive and porous properties. The direct osteogenesis ability can be adjusted by the design and composition of those inorganic materials. With porous structure, adjustable pore size and high surface area, they are used as carriers to deliver various small molecular drugs, proteins, and genes locally to promote bone generation. The surface of those porous inorganic materials can be further functionalized to control the loading and release of drugs and modulate the behaviour of host cells. This review summarizes the recent advances of various porous inorganic nanomaterials for bone repairing with a focus on their performance as scaffolds and drug delivery systems. We also discuss the challenges and prospects of porous inorganic nanomaterials for the future clinical application for bone regeneration.


porous nanomaterials, osteogenesis, angiogenesis, bone tissue engineering, drug delivery system
Received: 01 February 2022 Revised: 01 March 2022 Accepted: 02 March 2022 Published: 12 March 2022 Issue date: March 2022

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Publication history
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Publication history

Received: 01 February 2022
Revised: 01 March 2022
Accepted: 02 March 2022
Published: 12 March 2022
Issue date: March 2022


© The Author(s) 2022. Nano TransMed published by Tsinghua University Press.



The authors acknowledge the support from the Australian Dental Research Foundation (No. 0115-2021). C. X. acknowledges the support of the Early Career Fellowship from the National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) and UQ Amplify Fellow from The University of Queensland.

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