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Research Article | Open Access | Online First

A self-healing aqueous ammonium-ion micro batteries based on PVA-NH4Cl hydrogel electrolyte and MXene-integrated perylene anode

Ke Niu1,2,§Junjie Shi2,§Long Zhang2,§Yang Yue3Mengjie Wang3Qixiang Zhang2Yanan Ma4Shuyi Mo1Shaofei Li1Wenbiao Li1Li Wen2Yixin Hou1Fei Long1( )Yihua Gao1,2( )
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Optical and Electronic Materials and Devices, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
School of Physics and Center for Nanoscale Characterization & Devices (CNCD), Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074, China
Information Materials and Intelligent Sensing Laboratory of Anhui Province, Key Laboratory of Structure and Functional Regulation of Hybrid Materials of Ministry of Education, Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Hubei Key Laboratory of Critical Materials of New Energy Vehicles & School of Mathematics, Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering Hubei University of Automotive Technology, Shiyan 442002, China

§ Ke Niu, Junjie Shi, and Long Zhang contributed equally to this work.

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Graphical Abstract


The successful study of self-healing aqueous micro batteries (AMBs) which inherit the advantages of aqueous batteries and have the ability to automatically repair damage is of great significance for the development of smart wearable and portable electronic devices. However, the rate performance and the related power density of developed self-healing AMBs using metal ions as charge carriers is limited, due to the strong interaction between metal ions and electrode materials. Therefore, there is great potential for developing self-healing NH4+ AMBs, because of the outstanding advantages of NH4+ such as extremely abundant reserves, smaller hydrated ion radius and little molar mass. However, the development of self-healing NH4+ AMBs is still an extremely challenge due to the difficulty in developing self-healing hydrogels and instability of anode materials. Even though, the firstly self-healing NH4+ AMBs based on tailoring hydrogel electrolyte and MXene-integrated perylene anode were successfully assembled. As expected, self-healing NH4+ AMBs exhibit excellent energy density (82.48 µWh·cm−2) and power density (3.09 mW·cm−2), cycle life (81.67% after 3000 GCD cycles), flexibility (95.68% under 180°) and self-healing ability (94.16% after the 10th self-healing cycles).

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Nano Research Energy
Cite this article:
Niu K, Shi J, Zhang L, et al. A self-healing aqueous ammonium-ion micro batteries based on PVA-NH4Cl hydrogel electrolyte and MXene-integrated perylene anode. Nano Research Energy, 2024,










Received: 07 March 2024
Revised: 11 April 2024
Accepted: 29 April 2024
Published: 03 June 2024
© The Author(s) 2024. Published by Tsinghua University Press.

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