Journal Home > Volume 3 , Issue 2

Since its first discovery in 2017, evaporation-induced electricity has attracted extensive attention and shown significant advantages in green energy conversion. While the streaming potential-related electrokinetic effect has been intensively explored and widely recognized as the underlying mechanism, the role of coupling between water molecules and charge carriers in the material remains elusive. Here we show through carefully designed experiments that the streaming potential effect indeed plays a role but can only contribute about half to the total water-evaporation-induced voltage occurring within the partially-wetted region of the carbon black film where the solid-liquid-gas three-phase interface exists. It is also shown that water evaporation from carboxyl and amino-functionalized carbon black films produces opposite voltage signals. Detailed first-principles calculations unveil that the adsorption of water molecules can lead to reversed charge transfer in the carboxyl and amino-functionalized carbon substrates. Finally, an evaporation-driven charge transport mechanism is proposed for the induced electricity mediated by the coupling between water molecules and charge carriers in the material. The results reveal the important role of direct interaction between water molecules and materials, deepening our understanding of the mechanism for evaporation-induced hydrovoltaic effect beyond streaming potential.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
Electronic supplementary material
About this article

Mechanism of water-evaporation-induced electricity beyond streaming potential

Show Author's information Sunmiao Fang1,2,§Huan Lu1,2,§Weicun Chu1,2Wanlin Guo1,3( )
State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Key Laboratory for Intelligent Nano Materials and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
Institute for Frontier Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China

§ Sunmiao Fang and Huan Lu contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Since its first discovery in 2017, evaporation-induced electricity has attracted extensive attention and shown significant advantages in green energy conversion. While the streaming potential-related electrokinetic effect has been intensively explored and widely recognized as the underlying mechanism, the role of coupling between water molecules and charge carriers in the material remains elusive. Here we show through carefully designed experiments that the streaming potential effect indeed plays a role but can only contribute about half to the total water-evaporation-induced voltage occurring within the partially-wetted region of the carbon black film where the solid-liquid-gas three-phase interface exists. It is also shown that water evaporation from carboxyl and amino-functionalized carbon black films produces opposite voltage signals. Detailed first-principles calculations unveil that the adsorption of water molecules can lead to reversed charge transfer in the carboxyl and amino-functionalized carbon substrates. Finally, an evaporation-driven charge transport mechanism is proposed for the induced electricity mediated by the coupling between water molecules and charge carriers in the material. The results reveal the important role of direct interaction between water molecules and materials, deepening our understanding of the mechanism for evaporation-induced hydrovoltaic effect beyond streaming potential.

Keywords: charge transfer, evaporation-induced electricity, streaming potential, hydrovoltaic effect

References(28)

[1]

Zhang, Z. H. ; Li, X. M.; Yin, J.; Xu, Y.; Fei, W. W.; Xue, M.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, J.; Guo, W. Emerging hydrovoltaic technology. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2018, 13, 1109–1119.

[2]

Wang, X. F.; Lin, F. R.; Wang, X.; Fang, S. M.; Tan, J.; Chu, W. C.; Rong, R.; Yin, J.; Zhang, Z. H.; Liu, Y. P. et al. Hydrovoltaic technology: From mechanism to applications. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2022, 51, 4902–4927.

[3]

Yin, J.; Zhou, J. X.; Fang, S. M.; Guo, W. L. Hydrovoltaic energy on the way. Joule 2020, 4, 1852–1855.

[4]

Zheng, C. X.; Chu, W. C.; Fang, S. M.; Tan, J.; Wang, X. F.; Guo, W. L. Materials for evaporation-driven hydrovoltaic technology. Interdiscip. Mater. 2022, 1, 449–470.

[5]

Xue, G. B.; Xu, Y.; Ding, T. P.; Li, J.; Yin, J.; Fei, W. W.; Cao, Y. Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L. Y.; Gong, L. et al. Water-evaporation-induced electricity with nanostructured carbon materials. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2017, 12, 317–321.

[6]

Zhang, G.; Duan, Z.; Qi, X.; Xu, Y. T.; Li, L.; Ma, W. G.; Zhang, H.; Liu, C. H.; Yao, W. Harvesting environment energy from water-evaporation over free-standing graphene oxide sponges. Carbon 2019, 148, 1–8.

[7]

Li, L. H.; Gao, S. W.; Hao, M. M.; Yang, X. Q.; Feng, S. J.; Li, L. L.; Wang, S. Q.; Xiong, Z. P.; Sun, F. Q.; Li, Y. et al. A novel, flexible dual-mode power generator adapted for wide dynamic range of the aqueous salinity. Nano Energy 2021, 85, 105970.

[8]

Fang, S. M.; Chu, W. C.; Tan, J.; Guo, W. L. The mechanism for solar irradiation enhanced evaporation and electricity generation. Nano Energy 2022, 101, 107605.

[9]

Chi, J. G.; Liu, C. R.; Che, L. F.; Li, D. J.; Fan, K.; Li, Q.; Yang, W. H.; Dong, L. X.; Wang, G. F.; Wang, Z. L. Harvesting water-evaporation-induced electricity based on liquid-solid triboelectric nanogenerator. Adv. Sci. 2022, 2022, 2201586.

[10]

Hou, B. F.; Cui, Z. Q.; Zhu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. Y.; Mei, T.; Li, J. H.; Wang, X. B. Functionalized carbon materials for efficient solar steam and electricity generation. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2019, 222, 159–164.

[11]

Dao, V. D.; Vu, N. H.; Choi, H. S. All day Limnobium laevigatum inspired nanogenerator self-driven via water evaporation. J. Power Sources 2020, 448, 227388.

[12]

Dao, V. D.; Vu, N. H.; Yun, S. N. Recent advances and challenges for solar-driven water evaporation system toward applications. Nano Energy 2020, 68, 104324.

[13]

Dao, V. D. An experimental exploration of generating electricity from nature-inspired hierarchical evaporator: The role of electrode materials. Sci. Total Environ. 2021, 759, 143490.

[14]

Dao, V. D.; Vu, N. H.; Thi Dang, H. L.; Yun, S. N. Recent advances and challenges for water evaporation-induced electricity toward applications. Nano Energy 2021, 85, 105979.

[15]

Qin, Y. S.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, X. Y.; Li, Y. J.; Xu, H.; Tan, Y. S.; Li, Y.; Song, T.; Sun, B. Q. Constant electricity generation in nanostructured silicon by evaporation-driven water flow. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 10619–10625.

[16]

Shao, B. B.; Song, Z. H.; Chen, X.; Wu, Y. F.; Li, Y. J.; Song, C. C.; Yang, F.; Song, T.; Wang, Y. S.; Lee, S. T. et al. Bioinspired hierarchical nanofabric electrode for silicon hydrovoltaic device with record power output. ACS Nano 2021, 15, 7472–7481.

[17]

Ma, Q. L.; He, Q. Y.; Yin, P. F.; Cheng, H. F.; Cui, X. Y.; Yun, Q. B.; Zhang, H. Rational design of MOF-based hybrid nanomaterials for directly harvesting electric energy from water evaporation. Adv. Mater. 2020, 32, 2003720.

[18]

Wang, Z. Y.; Wu, Y. L.; Xu, K. Q.; Jiang, L. P.; Sun, J. K.; Cai, G. Y.; Li, G. F.; Xia, B. Y.; Liu, H. F. Hierarchical oriented metal-organic frameworks assemblies for water-evaporation induced electricity generation. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 31, 2104732.

[19]

Shao, C. X.; Ji, B. X.; Xu, T.; Gao, J.; Gao, X.; Xiao, Y. K.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, N.; Jiang, L.; Qu, L. T. Large-scale production of flexible, high-voltage hydroelectric films based on solid oxides. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 30927–30935.

[20]

Li, L. H.; Feng, S. J.; Bai, Y. Y.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, M. Y.; Hao, M. M.; Wang, S. Q.; Wu, Y.; Sun, F. Q.; Liu, Z. et al. Enhancing hydrovoltaic power generation through heat conduction effects. Nat. Commun. 2022, 13, 1043.

[21]

Hu, Q. C.; Ma, Y. J.; Ren, G. P.; Zhang, B. T.; Zhou, S. G. Water evaporation-induced electricity with Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. Sci. Adv. 2022, 8, eabm8047.

[22]

Sun, Z. Z.; Han, C. L.; Gao, S. W.; Li, Z. X.; Jing, M. X.; Yu, H. P.; Wang, Z. K. Achieving efficient power generation by designing bioinspired and multi-layered interfacial evaporator. Nat. Commun. 2022, 13, 5077.

[23]

Zhou, X. B.; Zhang, W. L.; Zhang, C. L.; Tan, Y.; Guo, J. C.; Sun, Z. N.; Deng, X. Harvesting electricity from water evaporation through microchannels of natural wood. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 11232–11239.

[24]

Delgado, A. V.; González-Caballero, F.; Hunter, R. J.; Koopal, L. K.; Lyklema, J. Measurement and interpretation of electrokinetic phenomena. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 309, 194–224.

[25]

Fang, S. M.; Li, J. D.; Xu, Y.; Shen, C.; Guo, W. L. Evaporating potential. Joule 2022, 6, 690–701.

[26]

Xu, X. T.; Yang, X. D.; Zhang, Z. M.; Hong, Y.; Liu, S. Y.; Shan, Y.; Peng, Z. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Yao, X.; Yang, Z. B. Identification of metal-air batteries from water energy harvesters. Droplet 2023, 2, e80.

[27]

van der Heyden, F. H. J.; Bonthuis, D. J.; Stein, D.; Meyer, C.; Dekker, C. Power generation by pressure-driven transport of ions in nanofluidic channels. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 1022–1025.

[28]

Liu, H. J.; Zhou, Y. C.; Yang, Y. B.; Zou, K.; Wu, R. J.; Xia, K.; Xie, S. B. Synthesis of polyethylenimine/graphene oxide for the adsorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2019, 471, 88–95.

File
0108_ESM.pdf (839.1 KB)
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 30 August 2023
Revised: 17 November 2023
Accepted: 18 November 2023
Published: 01 December 2023
Issue date: June 2024

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2024. Published by Tsinghua University Press.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National and Jiangsu Province NSF (T2293691, BK20212008) of China, National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019YFA0705400), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures (MCMS-I-0422K01), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (NJ2022002) and the Fund of Prospective Layout of Scientific Research for NUAA (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics).

Rights and permissions

The articles published in this open access journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Return