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Review Article | Open Access

Progress of organic, inorganic redox flow battery and mechanism of electrode reaction

Yinping Liu1,§Yingchun Niu1,§Xiangcheng Ouyang1,§Chao Guo1Peiyu Han1Ruichen Zhou1Ali Heydari1Yang Zhou1Olli Ikkala2Glazkov Artem Tigranovich3Chunming Xu1Quan Xu1( )
State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Beijing Key Laboratory of Biogas Upgrading Utilization, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
Center of Excellence Molecular Engineering of Biosynthetic Hybrid Materials Research, Aalto University and VTT, Espoo FI-00076, Finland
EMCPS Department, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow 125047, Russia

§ Yinping Liu and Yingchun Niu and Xiangcheng Ouyang contributed equally to this work.

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Graphical Abstract

The latest development of inorganic vanadium flow batteries, iron-chromium flow batteries, zinc-based redox flow batteries, organic redox flow batteries, and novel flow batteries are reviewed. In addition, the electrode reaction of redox flow batteries (RFBs) and their modification mechanism are also studied, which is used to improve the performance and economic benefits of RFBs.


With the deployment of renewable energy and the increasing demand for power grid modernization, redox flow battery has attracted a lot of research interest in recent years. Among the available energy storage technologies, the redox flow battery is considered the most promising candidate battery due to its unlimited capacity, design flexibility, and safety. In this review, we summarize the latest progress and improvement strategies of common inorganic redox flow batteries, such as vanadium redox flow batteries, iron-chromium redox flow batteries, and zinc-based redox flow batteries, including electrolyte, membrane, electrode, structure design, etc. In addition, we introduce the latest progress in aqueous and non-aqueous organic redox flow batteries. We also focus on the modification mechanism, optimization design, improvement strategy, and modeling method of the redox flow battery reaction. Finally, this review presents a brief summary, challenges, and perspectives of the redox flow battery.



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Nano Research Energy
Article number: e9120081
Cite this article:
Liu Y, Niu Y, Ouyang X, et al. Progress of organic, inorganic redox flow battery and mechanism of electrode reaction. Nano Research Energy, 2023, 2: e9120081.










Received: 07 March 2023
Revised: 01 April 2023
Accepted: 30 April 2023
Published: 29 June 2023
© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Tsinghua University Press.

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