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With the rapid development of economy, the increasing energy crisis and environmental pollution urge us to develop sustainable and clean novel energy systems. Among them, the electrochemical energy conversion technology is considered as one of the ideal potential alternative energy systems, and the electrocatalysts play critical roles but are still challenging. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), thanks to their regular channels, atomically dispersed active centers, adjustable chemical and pore environments, have severed as promising electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy conversion. However, the relatively low conductivities and instabilities of MOFs limit their wide application in this field. In this case, fabricating hybrids of MOFs and carbon-based materials is an effective way to overcome above deficiencies. In addition, the synergistic effects between MOFs and carbons could optimize the electronic structures of active sites and promote the active surface areas, and thus improve the electrocatalytic performances of the composites. Herein, we outline the current development of MOF/carbon composites, including the fabrication methods of MOFs hybridized with various dimensions of carbon-based materials and the electrocatalysis utilization for water splitting, including the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Finally, the advantages and challenges of such catalysts are highlighted and future endeavors on the development of MOF/carbon composites for the HER, OER and ORR are discussed.

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Metal–organic framework and carbon hybrid nanostructures: Fabrication strategies and electrocatalytic application for the water splitting and oxygen reduction reaction

Show Author's information Ziyun Su1Qiupin Huang1Qian Guo1S. Jafar Hoseini2Fuqin Zheng1( )Wei Chen1( )
School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China
Rashidi Laboratory of Organometallic Chemistry & Material Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 7194684795, Iran


With the rapid development of economy, the increasing energy crisis and environmental pollution urge us to develop sustainable and clean novel energy systems. Among them, the electrochemical energy conversion technology is considered as one of the ideal potential alternative energy systems, and the electrocatalysts play critical roles but are still challenging. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), thanks to their regular channels, atomically dispersed active centers, adjustable chemical and pore environments, have severed as promising electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy conversion. However, the relatively low conductivities and instabilities of MOFs limit their wide application in this field. In this case, fabricating hybrids of MOFs and carbon-based materials is an effective way to overcome above deficiencies. In addition, the synergistic effects between MOFs and carbons could optimize the electronic structures of active sites and promote the active surface areas, and thus improve the electrocatalytic performances of the composites. Herein, we outline the current development of MOF/carbon composites, including the fabrication methods of MOFs hybridized with various dimensions of carbon-based materials and the electrocatalysis utilization for water splitting, including the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Finally, the advantages and challenges of such catalysts are highlighted and future endeavors on the development of MOF/carbon composites for the HER, OER and ORR are discussed.

Keywords: oxygen reduction reaction, metal-organic frameworks, electrocatalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, water splitting, hydrogen evolution reaction, energy conversion, carbon materials



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Publication history
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Publication history

Received: 23 January 2023
Revised: 04 April 2023
Accepted: 12 April 2023
Published: 01 June 2023
Issue date: December 2023


© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Tsinghua University Press.



This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Province (Nos. 2019GXNSFGA245003 and 2021GXNSFBA220058), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 22002026 and 22272036) and the Guangxi Normal University Research Grant (2022TD).

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