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With the increasing demand for fuel causing serious environmental pollution, it is urgent to develop new and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. These energy conversion devices, however, require good, inexpensive materials for electrodes and so on. The multifunctional properties of porphyrins enable framework materials (e.g., metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks) to be applied in energy conversion devices due to their simple synthesis, high chemical stability, abundant metallic active sites, adjustable crystalline structure and high specific surface area. Herein, the types of porphyrin structural blocks are briefly reviewed. They can be used as organic ligands or directly assembled with framework materials to generate high-performance electro-/photo-catalysts. These types of catalysts applied in electro-/photo-catalytic water splitting, electro-/photo-catalytic carbon dioxide reduction, and electrocatalytic oxygen reduction are also summarized and introduced. At the end of the article, we present the challenges of porphyrin-based framework materials in the above application and corresponding solutions. We expect porphyrin-based framework materials to flourish energy conversion in the coming years.

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Porphyrin-based framework materials for energy conversion

Show Author's information Jiawei Gu1Yi Peng1Ting Zhou1Jiao Ma1Huan Pang1( )Yusuke Yamauchi2( )
Country School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN) and School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia


With the increasing demand for fuel causing serious environmental pollution, it is urgent to develop new and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. These energy conversion devices, however, require good, inexpensive materials for electrodes and so on. The multifunctional properties of porphyrins enable framework materials (e.g., metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks) to be applied in energy conversion devices due to their simple synthesis, high chemical stability, abundant metallic active sites, adjustable crystalline structure and high specific surface area. Herein, the types of porphyrin structural blocks are briefly reviewed. They can be used as organic ligands or directly assembled with framework materials to generate high-performance electro-/photo-catalysts. These types of catalysts applied in electro-/photo-catalytic water splitting, electro-/photo-catalytic carbon dioxide reduction, and electrocatalytic oxygen reduction are also summarized and introduced. At the end of the article, we present the challenges of porphyrin-based framework materials in the above application and corresponding solutions. We expect porphyrin-based framework materials to flourish energy conversion in the coming years.


porphyrins, metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, energy conversion, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis
Received: 03 May 2022 Revised: 21 May 2022 Accepted: 23 May 2022 Published: 29 May 2022 Issue date: June 2022

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Publication history
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Publication history

Received: 03 May 2022
Revised: 21 May 2022
Accepted: 23 May 2022
Published: 29 May 2022
Issue date: June 2022


© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Tsinghua University Press.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. U1904215), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20200044), Program for Young Changjiang Scholars of the Ministry of Education, China (No. Q2018270). This work was performed in part at the Queensland node of the Australian National Fabrication Facility, a company established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy to provide nano and microfabrication facilities for Australia's researchers. We also acknowledge the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

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