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Low temperature aqueous batteries (LT-ABs) have attracted extensive attention recent years. The LT-ABs suffer from electrolyte freezing, slow ionic diffusion and sluggish interfacial redox kinetics at low temperature. In this review, we discuss physicochemical properties of aqueous electrolytes in terms of phase diagram, ion diffusion and interfacial redox kinetics to guide the design of low temperature aqueous electrolytes (LT-AEs). Firstly, the characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase diagrams are introduced to analyze the antifreezing mechanisms and propose design strategies for LT-AEs. Then, the temperature/concentration/charge carrier dependence conductivity characteristics in aqueous electrolytes are reviewed to comprehend and regulate the ion diffusion kinetics. Moreover, we introduce interfacial studies in aqueous and non-aqueous batteries and propose potential improvement strategies for interfacial redox kinetics in LT-ABs. Finally, we summarize design strategies of LT-AEs for developing high performance LT-ABs.


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Design strategies for low temperature aqueous electrolytes

Show Author's information Liwei JiangDejian DongYi-Chun Lu( )
Electrochemical Energy and Interfaces Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

Abstract

Low temperature aqueous batteries (LT-ABs) have attracted extensive attention recent years. The LT-ABs suffer from electrolyte freezing, slow ionic diffusion and sluggish interfacial redox kinetics at low temperature. In this review, we discuss physicochemical properties of aqueous electrolytes in terms of phase diagram, ion diffusion and interfacial redox kinetics to guide the design of low temperature aqueous electrolytes (LT-AEs). Firstly, the characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase diagrams are introduced to analyze the antifreezing mechanisms and propose design strategies for LT-AEs. Then, the temperature/concentration/charge carrier dependence conductivity characteristics in aqueous electrolytes are reviewed to comprehend and regulate the ion diffusion kinetics. Moreover, we introduce interfacial studies in aqueous and non-aqueous batteries and propose potential improvement strategies for interfacial redox kinetics in LT-ABs. Finally, we summarize design strategies of LT-AEs for developing high performance LT-ABs.

Keywords:

aqueous electrolytes, low temperature, phase diagram, ionic diffusion, interfacial redox kinetics
Received: 26 February 2022 Revised: 13 April 2022 Accepted: 14 April 2022 Published: 17 April 2022 Issue date: June 2022
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Received: 26 February 2022
Revised: 13 April 2022
Accepted: 14 April 2022
Published: 17 April 2022
Issue date: June 2022

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© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Tsinghua University Press.

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Acknowledgements

The work described in this paper was fully supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (No. CUHK14304520).

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