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Brain–computer interface (BCI) is a novel communication method between brain and machine. It enables signals from the human brain to influence or control external devices. Currently, much research interest is focused on the BCI-based neural rehabilitation of patients with motor and cognitive diseases. Over the decades, BCI has become an alternative treatment for motor and cognitive rehabilitation. Previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of BCI intervention in restoring motor function and recovery of the damaged brain. Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCI intervention could cast light on the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity during upper limb recovery by providing feedback to the damaged brain. BCI could act as a useful tool to aid patients with daily communication and basic movement in severe motor loss cases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, recent findings have reported the therapeutic efficacy of BCI in people suffering from other diseases with different levels of motor impairment such as spastic cerebral palsy, neuropathic pain, etc. Besides motor functional recovery, BCI also plays its role in improving the behavior of patients with cognitive diseases like attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The BCI-based neurofeedback training is focused on either reducing the ratio of theta and beta rhythm, or enabling the patients to regulate their own slow cortical potentials, and both have made progress in increasing attention and alertness. With summary of several clinical studies with strong evidence, we present cutting edge results from the clinical application of BCI in motor and cognitive diseases, including stroke, spinal cord injury, ALS, and ADHD.


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State-of-the-art non-invasive brain–computer interface for neural rehabilitation: A review

Show Author's information Miaomiao Zhuang1,5,§Qingheng Wu2,5,§Feng Wan3Yong Hu4,5( )
Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China;
Department of Dentistry, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu, China;
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, China;
Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Orthopaedic Trauma, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518053, China;
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China

§ These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Brain–computer interface (BCI) is a novel communication method between brain and machine. It enables signals from the human brain to influence or control external devices. Currently, much research interest is focused on the BCI-based neural rehabilitation of patients with motor and cognitive diseases. Over the decades, BCI has become an alternative treatment for motor and cognitive rehabilitation. Previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of BCI intervention in restoring motor function and recovery of the damaged brain. Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCI intervention could cast light on the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity during upper limb recovery by providing feedback to the damaged brain. BCI could act as a useful tool to aid patients with daily communication and basic movement in severe motor loss cases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, recent findings have reported the therapeutic efficacy of BCI in people suffering from other diseases with different levels of motor impairment such as spastic cerebral palsy, neuropathic pain, etc. Besides motor functional recovery, BCI also plays its role in improving the behavior of patients with cognitive diseases like attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The BCI-based neurofeedback training is focused on either reducing the ratio of theta and beta rhythm, or enabling the patients to regulate their own slow cortical potentials, and both have made progress in increasing attention and alertness. With summary of several clinical studies with strong evidence, we present cutting edge results from the clinical application of BCI in motor and cognitive diseases, including stroke, spinal cord injury, ALS, and ADHD.

Keywords:

brain–computer interface (BCI), neural rehabilitation, stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Received: 09 October 2019 Revised: 02 February 2020 Accepted: 05 February 2020 Published: 05 March 2020 Issue date: March 2020
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Publication history

Received: 09 October 2019
Revised: 02 February 2020
Accepted: 05 February 2020
Published: 05 March 2020
Issue date: March 2020

Copyright

© The authors 2020

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by High Level-Hospital Program, Health Commission of Guangdong Province, China (HKUSZH201902033).

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This article is published with open access at http://jnr.tsinghuajournals.com

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