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Research Article | Open Access | Just Accepted

The superior synergistic oxidation resistance of medium-entropy carbide ceramic powders rather than multi-phase carbide ceramic powders

Jiachen LiFanyu LuTao LiYanqin FuJunhao ZhaoJunshuai LvYulei Zhang( )

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Fiber Reinforced Light Composite Materials, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China

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Graphical Abstract


Until now, some questions about medium-entropy carbide ceramic and the corresponding multi-phase carbide ceramic with the same cation and proportion remain unclear. Regarding oxidation behavior, do both have a synergistic oxidation ability and what role does entropy stabilization play in medium-entropy carbides? In this work, the oxidation behaviors of HfC-ZrC-TiC multi-phase carbide (HZT-MPC) and (Hf1/3Zr1/3Ti1/3)C medium-entropy carbide (HZT-MEC) powders were investigated. After thermogravimetry (TG) oxidation, the TG curve of HZT-MPC had a bimodal distribution. The “preferential oxidation” of HfC/ZrC occurred within HZT-MPC, followed by the formation of multi-phase oxides (HfO2, ZrO2 and TiO2). Uneven compositional distribution slowed down their solid solution reactions to form Ti-doped (Hf, Zr)O2 and (Hf, Zr)TiO4. While the TG curve of HZT-MEC had a single-peak characteristic. Uniform compositional distribution at the atomic scale promoted the rapid interdiffusion of oxides, forming Ti-doped (Hf, Zr)O2 and (Hf, Zr)TiO4 without ZrO2, HfO2 and TiO2 after TG oxidation. Additionally, HZT-MEC had a higher onset oxidation temperature (470 °C) compared to HZT-MPC (430 °C), and the TG single peak of HZT-MEC was between the TG bimodal peaks of HZT-MPC. Therefore, HZT-MEC showed superior oxidation resistance compared to HZT-MPC, which was attributed to the entropy stabilization effect of HZT-MEC suppressed the “preferential oxidation” of HfC/ZrC and the “delayed oxidation” of TiC, promoting the synergistic oxidation ability of multi-principal elements.

Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Cite this article:
Li J, Lu F, Li T, et al. The superior synergistic oxidation resistance of medium-entropy carbide ceramic powders rather than multi-phase carbide ceramic powders. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2024,








Web of Science






Received: 04 April 2024
Revised: 13 June 2024
Accepted: 15 June 2024
Available online: 16 June 2024

© The author(s) 2024

The articles published in this open access journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (