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Research Article | Open Access | Just Accepted

Lattice evolution, order transformation, and microwave dielectric properties of the Zn1–xLi2xTiO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) system ceramics

Qianbiao DuaLongxiang JiangaLinzhao MaaJianhong DuanaZeyan Zhoub( )Hao Lia( )

aCollege of Electrical and Information Engineering, Huanan University, Changsha 410082, China.

bCollege of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

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Graphical Abstract


Research on doping modification of ZnTiO3 ceramics to enhance microwave dielectric properties has been hindered by poor performance, unclear structure-function mechanisms. To expand the applicability of ZnTiO3 ceramics, this study explores Zn1–xLi2xTiO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) ceramics using a phase engineering strategy. Our findings reveal that the introduction of Li+ into the ZnTiO3 system initiates a multiple phase transition, starting at x = 0.1. Initially, ilmenite ZnTiO3 transforms into a cubic ordered spinel phase (space group P4332). Subsequently, a transition to a disordered spinel phase (space group Fd-3m) occurs at x = 0.5, culminating in the formation of a monoclinic rock salt-structured Li2TiO3 phase. Significantly, two sets of ceramics with near-zero temperature coefficients of resonance frequency (τf) were obtained at x = 0.1 and 0.75. Moreover, the quality factor (Q×f) demonstrated a 4.4-fold increase compared to that of ZnTiO3 ceramics at x = 0.25 (105,013 GHz). Additionally, it was observed that the Ti4+ polarization in Zn1–xLi2xTiO3 ceramics had been underestimated by 11.3-13.3%, causing the measured dielectric constant (εr) exceeding the theoretical dielectric constant (εth). The ionic polarizability of Ti4+ was adjusted to stabilize around 3.29 Å3. Evaluation using multiple methods, including Phillips–Van Vechten–Levine theory, Raman vibrational mode analysis, bond valence, bond energy theory, and octahedral distortion, confirms that the Ti-O bonds within the octahedron predominantly affect εr, the increasing lattice energy (U) contributes to the enhancement of Q×f, and the strengthened Li-O bond energy effectively regulates τf.

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Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Cite this article:
Du Q, Jiang L, Ma L, et al. Lattice evolution, order transformation, and microwave dielectric properties of the Zn1–xLi2xTiO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) system ceramics. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2024,








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Received: 03 April 2024
Revised: 07 June 2024
Accepted: 11 June 2024
Available online: 12 June 2024

© The author(s) 2024

The articles published in this open access journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (