AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
View PDF
Collect
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Urchin-like Na-doped zinc oxide nanoneedles for low-concentration and exclusive VOC detections

Yiwen Zhou1Yifan Luo1,2Zichen Zheng1Kewei Liu1,2Xiaoxi He1Kaidi Wu1Marc Debliquy2Chao Zhang1( )
College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China
Material Science Department, University of Mons, Mons 7000, Belgium
Show Author Information

Graphical Abstract

Abstract

In the early-stage diagnosis of lung cancer, the low-concentration (< 5 ppm) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extensively identified to be the biomarkers for breath analysis. Herein, the urchin-like sodium (Na)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoneedles were synthesized through a hydrothermal strategy with the addition of different contents of citric acid. The Na-doped ZnO gas sensor with a 3 : 1 molar ratio of Na+ and citric acid showed outstanding sensing properties with an optimal selectivity to various VOCs (formaldehyde (HCOH), isopropanol, acetone, and ammonia) based on working temperature regulation. Specifically, significantly enhanced sensitivity (21.3@5 ppm) compared with pristine ZnO (~7-fold), low limit of detection (LOD) (298 ppb), robust humidity resistance, and long-term stability of formaldehyde sensing performances were obtained, which can be attributed to the formation of a higher concentration of oxygen vacancies (20.98%) and the active electron transitions. Furthermore, the improved sensing mechanism was demonstrated by the exquisite band structure and introduction of the additional acceptor level, which resulted in the narrowed bandgap of ZnO.

Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM)

Download File(s)
JAC0873_ESM.pdf (834.3 KB)

References

[1]

Behera B, Joshi R, Anil Vishnu GK, et al. Electronic nose: A non-invasive technology for breath analysis of diabetes and lung cancer patients. J Breath Res 2019, 13: 024001.

[2]

Sun XH, Shao K, Wang T. Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath as noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis. Anal Bioanal Chem 2016, 408: 2759–2780.

[3]

Hajivand P, Carolus Jansen J, Pardo E, et al. Application of metal–organic frameworks for sensing of VOCs and other volatile biomarkers. Coord Chem Rev 2024, 501: 215558.

[4]

Antoniou SX, Gaude E, Ruparel M, et al. The potential of breath analysis to improve outcome for patients with lung cancer. J Breath Res 2019, 13: 034002.

[5]

Pathak AK, Swargiary K, Kongsawang N, et al. Recent advances in sensing materials targeting clinical volatile organic compound (VOC) biomarkers: A review. Biosensors 2023, 13: 114.

[6]

Zhang C, Huan YC, Li Y, et al. Low concentration isopropanol gas sensing properties of Ag nanoparticles decorated In2O3 hollow spheres. J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 379–391.

[7]

Srinivasan P, Prakalya D, Jeyaprakash BG. UV-activated ZnO/CdO n–n isotype heterostructure as breath sensor. J Alloys Compd 2020, 819: 152985.

[8]

Yang YZ, Li S, Liu D, et al. UV-activated efficient formaldehyde gas sensor based on cauliflower-like graphene-modified In-doped ZnO at room temperature. J Alloys Compd 2023, 936: 168104.

[9]

Liu XJ, Duan XP, Zhang C, et al. Improvement toluene detection of gas sensors based on flower-like porous indium oxide nanosheets. J Alloys Compd 2022, 897: 163222.

[10]

He XX, Chai HF, Luo YF, et al. Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensing materials for early lung cancer diagnosis. J Adv Ceram 2023, 12: 207–227.

[11]

Zheng ZC, Liu KW, Zhou YW, et al. Ultrasensitive room-temperature geranyl acetone detection based on Fe@WO3− x nanoparticles in cooked rice flavor analysis. J Adv Ceram 2023, 12: 1547–1561.

[12]

Liu KW, Zhang C. Volatile organic compounds gas sensor based on quartz crystal microbalance for fruit freshness detection: A review. Food Chem 2021, 334: 127615.

[13]

Xu JY, Zhang C. Oxygen vacancy engineering on cerium oxide nanowires for room-temperature linalool detection in rice aging. J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 1559–1570.

[14]

Zhao XT, Yang Y, Cheng L, et al. Cold sintering process for fabrication of a superhydrophobic ZnO–polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ceramic composite. J Adv Ceram 2023, 12: 1758–1766.

[15]

Cheng ZL, Li R, Long YW, et al. Power loss transition of stable ZnO varistor ceramics: Role of oxygen adsorption on the stability of interface states at the grain boundary. J Adv Ceram 2023, 12: 972–983.

[16]

Postica V, Vahl A, Santos-Carballal D, et al. Tuning ZnO sensors reactivity toward volatile organic compounds via Ag doping and nanoparticle functionalization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019, 11: 31452–31466.

[17]

Yuan HY, Aljneibi SAAA, Yuan JR, et al. ZnO nanosheets abundant in oxygen vacancies derived from metal–organic frameworks for ppb-level gas sensing. Adv Mater 2019, 31: e1807161.

[18]

Qin WB, Yuan ZY, Shen YB, et al. Phosphorus-doped porous perovskite LaFe1− x PxO3− δ nanosheets with rich surface oxygen vacancies for ppb level acetone sensing at low temperature. Chem Eng J 2022, 431: 134280.

[19]

Huang GY, Wang CY, Wang JT. First-principles study of diffusion of Li, Na, K and Ag in ZnO. J Phys: Condens Matter 2009, 21: 345802.

[20]

Jaisutti R, Lee M, Kim J, et al. Ultrasensitive room-temperature operable gas sensors using p-type Na:ZnO nanoflowers for diabetes detection. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017, 9: 8796–8804.

[21]

Jasmi KK, Anto Johny T, Siril VS, et al. Influence of defect density states on NO2 gas sensing performance of Na:ZnO thin films. J Sol Gel Sci Technol 2023, 107: 659–670.

[22]

Wang CN, Li YL, Gong FL, et al. Advances in doped ZnO nanostructures for gas sensor. Chem Rec 2020, 20: 1553–1567.

[23]

Mariappan R, Ponnuswamy V, Suresh R, et al. Role of substrate temperature on the properties of Na-doped ZnO thin film nanorods and performance of ammonia gas sensors using nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. J Alloys Compd 2014, 582: 387–391.

[24]

Basyooni MA, Shaban M, El Sayed AM. Enhanced gas sensing properties of spin-coated Na-doped ZnO nanostructured films. Sci Rep 2017, 7: 41716.

[25]

Meng FL, Qi TY, Zhang JJ, et al. MoS2-templated porous hollow MoO3 microspheres for highly selective ammonia sensing via a lewis acid–base interaction. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2022, 69: 960–970.

[26]

Li K, Wu YZ, Chen MP, et al. High methanol gas-sensing performance of Sm2O3/ZnO/SmFeO3 microspheres synthesized via a hydrothermal method. Nanoscale Res Lett 2019, 14: 57.

[27]

Sui YR, Song YP, Lv SQ, et al. Enhancing of the rapid thermal annealing for the p-type transition in sodium-doped ZnCdO thin films using RF reactive magnetron sputtering synthesis. J Alloys Compd 2017, 701: 689–697.

[28]

Zhang DD, Fang Z, Wang L, et al. Controllable growth of single-crystalline zinc oxide nanosheets under ambient condition toward ammonia sensing with ultrahigh selectivity and sensitivity. J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 1187–1195.

[29]

Lei ZH, Cheng PF, Wang YL, et al. Pt-doped α-Fe2O3 mesoporous microspheres with low-temperature ultra-sensitive properties for gas sensors in diabetes detection. Appl Surf Sci 2023, 607: 154558.

[30]

Li J, Yang M, Li YY, et al. Construction of SnO2 nanoneural network by ultrasmall particles for highly selective NO2 detection at low temperature. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2022, 361: 131703.

[31]

Xu HY, Zhang SD, Wang YF, et al. New insights into the photocatalytic mechanism of pristine ZnO nanocrystals: From experiments to DFT calculations. Appl Surf Sci 2023, 614: 156225.

[32]

Shu Y, Duan XL, Niu Q, et al. Mechanochemical alkali-metal-salt-mediated synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals with abundant oxygen vacancies: an efficient support for Pd-based catalyst. Chem Eng J 2021, 426: 131757.

[33]

Marzorati D, Mainardi L, Sedda G, et al. A review of exhaled breath: A key role in lung cancer diagnosis. J Breath Res 2019, 13: 034001.

[34]

Luo YF, Ly A, Lahem D, et al. Role of cobalt in Co–ZnO nanoflower gas sensors for the detection of low concentration of VOCs. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2022, 360: 131674.

[35]

Sáaedi A, Yousefi R. Improvement of gas-sensing performance of ZnO nanorods by group-I elements doping. J Appl Phys 2017, 122: 224505.

[36]

Hsu CL, Jhang BY, Kao C, et al. UV-illumination and Au-nanoparticles enhanced gas sensing of p-type Na-doped ZnO nanowires operating at room temperature. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2018, 274: 565–574.

[37]

Zhang C, Xu KC, Liu KW, et al. Metal oxide resistive sensors for carbon dioxide detection. Coord Chem Rev 2022, 472: 214758.

[38]

Zhang C, Zheng ZC, Liu KW, et al. Highly sensitive and selective Sb2WO6 microspheres in detecting VOC biomarkers in cooked rice: Experimental and density functional theory study. Food Chem 2023, 424: 136323.

[39]

Luo YF, Ly A, Lahem D, et al. A novel low-concentration isopropanol gas sensor based on Fe-doped ZnO nanoneedles and its gas sensing mechanism. J Mater Sci 2021, 56: 3230–3245.

[40]

Chai HF, Li Y, Luo YF, et al. Investigation on isopropanol sensing properties of LnFeO3 (Ln = Nd, Dy, Er) perovskite materials synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Appl Surf Sci 2022, 601: 154292.

[41]

Zheng ZC, Liu KW, Xu KC, et al. Investigation on microstructure and nonanal sensing properties of hierarchical Sb2WO6 microspheres. Ceram Int 2022, 48: 30249–30259.

[42]

Siril VS, Jasmi KK, AntoJohny T, et al. Investigation of thickness effect on NO2 gas sensing properties of ZnO/Na thin films. Mater Today Proc 2023, 76: 365–371.

[43]

Jin XH, Li YW, Zhang B, et al. Temperature-dependent dual selectivity of hierarchical porous In2O3 nanospheres for sensing ethanol and TEA. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2021, 330: 129271.

[44]

Peng L, Xie TF, Yang M, et al. Light induced enhancing gas sensitivity of copper-doped zinc oxide at room temperature. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2008, 131: 660–664.

[45]

Zhang WS, Yuan TW, Wang XH, et al. Coal mine gas sensors with dual selectivity at variable temperatures based on a W18O49 ultra-fine nanowires/Pd@Au bimetallic nanoparticles composite. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2022, 354: 131004.

[46]

Zhang C, Geng X, Liao HL, et al. Room-temperature nitrogen-dioxide sensors based on ZnO1– x coatings deposited by solution precursor plasma spray. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2017, 242: 102–111.

[47]

Yuan H, Xu M, Dong CJ, et al. Mechanistic insights into magnetic and gas sensing properties of (F,Na)-codoped ZnO nanocrystals by room-temperature photoluminescence. Appl Surf Sci 2019, 496: 143511.

[48]

Sun K, Zhan GH, Zhang L, et al. Highly sensitive NO2 gas sensor based on ZnO nanoarray modulated by oxygen vacancy with Ce doping. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2023, 379: 133294.

[49]

Zhang C, Geng X, Li JW, et al. Role of oxygen vacancy in tuning of optical, electrical and NO2 sensing properties of ZnO1− x coatings at room temperature. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 2017, 248: 886–893.

Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 507-517
Cite this article:
Zhou Y, Luo Y, Zheng Z, et al. Urchin-like Na-doped zinc oxide nanoneedles for low-concentration and exclusive VOC detections. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2024, 13(4): 507-517. https://doi.org/10.26599/JAC.2024.9220873

1000

Views

129

Downloads

1

Crossref

0

Web of Science

0

Scopus

0

CSCD

Received: 24 November 2023
Revised: 21 February 2024
Accepted: 03 March 2024
Published: 30 April 2024
© The Author(s) 2024.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Return