AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
View PDF
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Single-source precursor derived high-entropy metal–carbide nanowires: Microstructure and growth evolution

Junhao ZhaoaYulei Zhanga,b( )Hui ChenaYanqin Fub( )Qing MiaoaJiachen MengaJiachen Lia
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Fiber Reinforced Light Composite Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
Henan Key Laboratory of High Performance Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites, Institute of Carbon Matrix Composites, Henan Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou 450046, China
Show Author Information

Graphical Abstract


In recent years, high-entropy metal carbides (HECs) have attracted significant attention due to their exceptional physical and chemical properties. The combination of excellent performance exhibited by bulk HEC ceramics and distinctive geometric characteristics has paved the way for the emergence of one-dimensional (1D) HECs as novel materials with unique development potential. Herein, we successfully fabricated novel (Ti0.2Zr0.2Hf0.2Nb0.2Ta0.2)C nanowires derived via Fe-assisted single-sourced precursor pyrolysis. Prior to the synthesis of the nanowires, the composition and microstructure of (Ti,Zr,Hf,Nb,Ta)-containing precursor (PHECs) were analyzed, and divinylbenzene (DVB) was used to accelerate the conversion process of the precursor and contribute to the formation of HECs, which also provided a partial carbon source for the nanowire growth. Additionally, multi-branched, single-branched, and single-branched bending nanowires were synthesized by adjusting the ratio of PHECs to DVB. The obtained single-branched (Ti0.2Zr0.2Hf0.2Nb0.2Ta0.2)C nanowires possessed smooth surfaces with an average diameter of 130–150 nm and a length of several tens of micrometers, which were a single-crystal structure and typically grew along the [1 1¯1] direction. Also, the growth of the (Ti0.2Zr0.2Hf0.2Nb0.2Ta0.2)C nanowires was in agreement with top-type vapor–liquid–solid mechanism. This work not only successfully achieved the fabrication of HEC nanowires by a catalyst-assisted polymer pyrolysis, but also provided a comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting their yield and morphology, highlighting the potential application of these attractive nano-materials.


Song JT, Chen GQ, Xiang HM, et al. Regulating the formation ability and mechanical properties of high-entropy transition metal carbides by carbon stoichiometry. J Mater Sci Technol 2022, 121: 181–189.
Ye ZM, Zeng Y, Xiong X, et al. Elucidating the role of preferential oxidation during ablation: Insights on the design and optimization of multicomponent ultra-high temperature ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 1956–1975.
Backman L, Gild J, Luo J, et al. Part II: Experimental verification of computationally predicted preferential oxidation of refractory high entropy ultra-high temperature ceramics. Acta Mater 2020, 197: 81–90.
Rost CM, Sachet E, Borman T, et al. Entropy-stabilized oxides. Nat Commun 2015, 6: 8485.
Moskovskikh D, Vorotilo S, Buinevich V, et al. Extremely hard and tough high entropy nitride ceramics. Sci Rep 2020, 10: 19874.
Peng Z, Sun W, Xiong X, et al. Novel refractory high-entropy ceramics: Transition metal carbonitrides with superior ablation resistance. Corros Sci 2021, 184: 109359.
Liu SY, Zhang SX, Liu SY, et al. Stability and mechanical properties of single-phase quinary high-entropy metal carbides: First-principles theory and thermodynamics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2022, 42: 3089–3098.
Li JC, Zhang YL, Zhao YX, et al. A novel (Hf1/3Zr1/3 Ti1/3)C medium-entropy carbide coating with excellent long-life ablation resistance applied above 2100 ℃. Compos Part B Eng 2023, 251: 110467.
Zhang WM, Xiang HM, Dai FZ, et al. Achieving ultra-broadband electromagnetic wave absorption in high-entropy transition metal carbides (HE TMCs). J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 545–555.
Ye BL, Wen TQ, Nguyen MC, et al. First-principles study, fabrication and characterization of (Zr0.25Nb0.25Ti0.25 V0.25)C high-entropy ceramics. Acta Mater 2019, 170: 15–23.
Ye BL, Chu YH, Huang KH, et al. Synthesis and characterization of (Zr1/3Nb1/3Ti1/3)C metal carbide solid-solution ceramic. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 919–923.
Yu D, Yin J, Zhang BH, et al. Pressureless sintering and properties of (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)C high-entropy ceramics: The effect of pyrolytic carbon. J Eur Ceram Soc 2021, 41: 3823–3831.
Zhang L, Wang WQ, Gao X, et al. Additive manufacturing of continuous carbon fiber reinforced high entropy ceramic matrix composites via paper laminating, direct slurry writing, and precursor infiltration and pyrolysis. Ceram Int 2023, 49: 7833–7841.
Ma MD, Hu XF, Meng H, et al. High-entropy metal carbide nanowires. Cell Rep Phys Sci 2022, 3: 100839.
Fu YQ, Zhang YL, Yin XM, et al. Awl-like HfC nanowires grown on carbon cloth via Fe-catalyzed in a polymer pyrolysis route. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 3458–3465.
Fu YQ, Zhang YL, Chen H, et al. Ultra-high temperature performance of carbon fiber composite reinforced by HfC nanowires: A promising lightweight composites for aerospace engineering. Compos Part B Eng 2023, 250: 110453.
Mu JR, Shi XH, Han X, et al. The catalyst-free controllable growth behavior and mechanism of HfCnws on C/C composites. Corros Sci 2021, 192: 109816.
Yan NN, Shi XH, Li K, et al. In-situ homogeneous growth of ZrC nanowires on carbon cloth and their effects on flexural properties of carbon/carbon composites. Compos Part B Eng 2018, 154: 200–208.
Ye BL, Fan C, Han YJ, et al. Synthesis of high-entropy diboride nanopowders via molten salt-mediated magnesiothermic reduction. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 4738–4741.
Ning SS, Wen TQ, Ye BL, et al. Low-temperature molten salt synthesis of high-entropy carbide nanopowders. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 2244–2251.
Zhan CH, Bu LZ, Sun HR, et al. Medium/high-entropy amalgamated core/shell nanoplate achieves efficient formic acid catalysis for direct formic acid fuel cell. Angew Chem Int Ed 2023, 62: e202213783.
Fu YQ, Zhang YL, Ren JC, et al. Large-scale synthesis of hafnium carbide nanowires via a Ni-assisted polymer infiltration and pyrolysis. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 2924–2931.
Sun YN, Ye L, Zhang YQ, et al. Synthesis of high entropy carbide ceramics via polymer precursor route. Ceram Int 2022, 48: 15939–15945.
Sun YN, Chen FH, Qiu WF, et al. Synthesis of rare earth containing single-phase multicomponent metal carbides via liquid polymer precursor route. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 6081–6087.
Li F, Lu Y, Wang XG, et al. Liquid precursor-derived high-entropy carbide nanopowders. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 22437–22441.
Du B, Liu HH, Chu YH. Fabrication and characterization of polymer-derived high-entropy carbide ceramic powders. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 4063–4068.
Liu Q, Zhang YL, Shen H, et al. Fractal characteristics and quantitative descriptions of messily grown nanowire morphologies. Mater Des 2018, 153: 287–297.
Casas-Cabanas M, Rodríguez-Carvajal J, Canales-Vázquez J, et al. Microstructural characterisation of battery materials using powder diffraction data: DIFFaX, FAULTS and SH-FullProf approaches. J Power Sources 2007, 174: 414–420.
Yang HT, Klemm S, Müller J, et al. Synthesis of high-entropy carbides from multi-metal polymer precursors. J Eur Ceram Soc 2023, 43: 4233–4243.
Liu HH, Du B, Chu YH. Synthesis of the ternary metal carbide solid-solution ceramics by polymer-derived-ceramic route. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 2970–2974.
Cai FY, Ni DW, Chen BW, et al. Fabrication and properties of Cf/(Ti0.2Zr0.2Hf0.2Nb0.2Ta0.2)C–SiC high-entropy ceramic matrix composites via precursor infiltration and pyrolysis. J Eur Ceram Soc 2021, 41: 5863–5871.
Lu Y, Sun YN, Zhang TZ, et al. Polymer-derived Ta4HfC5 nanoscale ultrahigh-temperature ceramics: Synthesis, microstructure and properties. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 205–211.
Li PF, Han Y, Zhou X, et al. Thermal effect and Rayleigh instability of ultrathin 4H hexagonal gold nanoribbons. Matter 2020, 2: 658–665.
Niu B, Cai DL, Yang ZH, et al. Effects of sintering temperature on the microstructure and properties of h-BN ceramics with MAS as liquid sintering aid. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 1076–1082.
Yuan KK, Han DY, Liang JF, et al. Microwave induced in situ formation of SiC nanowires on SiCNO ceramic aerogels with excellent electromagnetic wave absorption performance. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 1140–1151.
Yan NN, Fu QG, Li K, et al. Catalyst-free in situ synthesis of ZrC nanowires with excellent thermal stability. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 5825–5836.
Koto M. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the growth mechanism of vapor–liquid–solid grown nanowires. J Cryst Growth 2015, 424: 49–54.
Zhou JY, Zhang JY, Zhang F, et al. High-entropy carbide: A novel class of multicomponent ceramics. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 22014–22018.
Yan XL, Constantin L, Lu YF, et al. (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2 Nb0.2Ti0.2)C high-entropy ceramics with low thermal conductivity. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 4486–4491.
Feng L, Fahrenholtz WG, Hilmas GE, et al. Synthesis of single-phase high-entropy carbide powders. Scripta Mater 2019, 162: 90–93.
Oh DK, Choi H, Shin H, et al. Tailoring zinc oxide nanowire architectures collectively by catalytic vapor–liquid–solid growth, catalyst-free vapor–solid growth, and low-temperature hydrothermal growth. Ceram Int 2021, 47: 2131–2143.
Kolasinski KW. Catalytic growth of nanowires: Vapor–liquid–solid, vapor–solid–solid, solution–liquid–solid and solid–liquid–solid growth. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 2006, 10: 182–191.
Liu B, Sun J, Zhou L, et al. Microstructure evolution and growth mechanism of core–shell silicon-based nanowires by thermal evaporation of SiO. J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 1417–1430.
Chen H, Zhang YL, Fu YQ, et al. Single-phase (Hf0.84 Ta0.16)C solid solution nanowires growth via catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition. J Am Ceram Soc 2023, 106: 689–698.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 2041-2052
Cite this article:
Zhao J, Zhang Y, Chen H, et al. Single-source precursor derived high-entropy metal–carbide nanowires: Microstructure and growth evolution. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2023, 12(11): 2041-2052.








Web of Science






Received: 08 June 2023
Revised: 06 September 2023
Accepted: 09 September 2023
Published: 20 November 2023
© The Author(s) 2023.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit