BiFeO3–BaTiO3 (BF–BT) based piezoelectric ceramics are a kind of high-temperature lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with great development prospects due to their high Curie temperature (TC) and excellent electrical properties. However, large leakage current limits their performance improvement and practical applications. In this work, direct current (DC) test, alternating current (AC) impedance, and Hall tests were used to investigate conduction mechanisms of 0.75BiFeO3–0.25BaTiO3 ceramics over a wide temperature range. In the range of room temperature (RT)−150 ℃, ohmic conduction plays a predominant effect, and the main carriers are p-type holes with the activation energy (Ea) of 0.51 eV. When T > 200 ℃, the Ea value calculated from the AC impedance and Hall data is 1.03 eV with oxygen vacancies as a cause of high conductivity. The diffusion behavior of thermally activated oxygen vacancies is affected by crystal symmetry, oxygen vacancy concentration, and distribution, dominating internal conduction mechanism. Deciphering the conduction mechanisms over the three temperature ranges would pave the way for further improving the insulation and electrical properties of BiFeO3–BaTiO3 ceramics.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 52072028 and 52032007) and National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2022YFB3807400). Thanks to Prof. Jing-Feng Li for his help with the Hall test and ferroelectric property characterization in this work.
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