AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
PDF (2.9 MB)
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Review | Open Access

Sodium lithium niobate lead-free piezoceramics for high-power applications: Fundamental, progress, and perspective

Chen-Bo-Wen LIa,b,Zhao LIa,b,Juan WANGc,Yi-Xuan LIUb( )Jing-Tong LUa,bZe XUbPak-Sheng SOONbKe BIa( )Chuan CHENd( )Ke WANGb
State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China
State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Department of Stomatology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, China
Department of Electric Power Sensing Technology, State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute Co., Ltd., Beijing 102211, China

† Chen-Bo-Wen Li, Zhao Li, and Juan Wang contributed equally to this work.

Show Author Information

Graphical Abstract


With the capability of interconversion between electrical and mechanical energy, piezoelectric materials have been revolutionized by the implementation of perovskite-piezoelectric-ceramic-based studies over 70 years. In particular, the market of piezoelectric ceramics has been dominated by lead zirconate titanate for decades. Nowadays, the research on piezoelectric ceramics is largely driven by cutting-edge technological demand as well as the consideration of a sustainable society. Hence, environmental-friendly lead-free piezoelectric materials have emerged to replace lead-based Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) compositions. Owing to the inherent high mechanical quality factor (Qm) and low energy loss, (Li,Na)NbO3 (LNN) materials have recently drawn increasing attention and brought advantages to high-power piezoelectric applications. Although the crystallographic structures of LNN materials were intensively investigated for decades, the technical strategies for electrical performance are still limited. As a result, the property enhancement appears to have approached a plateau. This review traces the progress in the development of LNN materials, starting from the polymorphism in terms of the crystal structures, phase transitions, and local structural distortions. Then, the key milestone works on the functional tunability of LNN are reviewed with emphasis on involved engineering approaches. The exceptional performance at a large vibration velocity makes LNN ceramics promising for high-power applications, such as ultrasonic welding (UW) and ultrasonic osteotomes (UOs). The remaining challenges and some strategic insights for synergistically engineering the functional performance of LNN piezoceramics are also suggested.


Rödel J, Webber KG, Dittmer R, et al. Transferring lead-free piezoelectric ceramics into application. J Eur Ceram Soc 2015, 35: 1659–1681.
Thong HC, Zhao CL, Zhou Z, et al. Technology transfer of lead-free (K,Na)NbO3-based piezoelectric ceramics. Mater Today 2019, 29: 37–48.
Qing X, Li W, Wang Y, et al. Piezoelectric transducer-based structural health monitoring for aircraft applications. Sensors 2019, 19: 545.
Siddique ARM, Mahmud S, van Heyst B. A comprehensive review on vibration based micro power generators using electromagnetic and piezoelectric transducer mechanisms. Energy Convers Manag 2015, 106: 728–747.
Gupta V, Sharma M, Thakur N. Active structural vibration control: Robust to temperature variations. Mech Syst Signal Process 2012, 33: 167–180.
Liu YX, Qu W, Thong HC, et al. Isolated-oxygen-vacancy hardening in lead-free piezoelectrics. Adv Mater 2022, 34: 2202558.
Zhang SJ, Xia R, Lebrun L, et al. Piezoelectric materials for high power, high temperature applications. Mater Lett 2005, 59: 3471–3475.
Fan ZM, Koruza J, Rödel J, et al. An ideal amplitude window against electric fatigue in BaTiO3-based lead-free piezoelectric materials. Acta Mater 2018, 151: 253–259.
Maurya D, Zhou Y, Wang YJ, et al. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K0.5Bi0.5TiO3–BaTiO3–Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 piezoelectric materials. Sci Rep 2015, 5: 8595.
Fan Y, Wang ZX, Huan Y, et al. Enhanced thermal and cycling reliabilities in (K,Na)(Nb,Sb)O3–CaZrO3–(Bi,Na)HfO3 ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 349–359.
Wang XJ, Huan Y, Zhu YX, et al. Defect engineering of BCZT-based piezoelectric ceramics with high piezoelectric properties. J Adv Ceram 2022, 11: 184–195.
Liu YX, Thong HC, Cheng YYS, et al. Defect-mediated domain-wall motion and enhanced electric-field-induced strain in hot-pressed K0.5Na0.5NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. J Appl Phys 2021, 129: 024102.
Tanaka D, Yamazaki J, Furukawa M, et al. High power characteristics of (Ca,Ba)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics with high mechanical quality factor. Jpn J Appl Phys 2010, 49: 09MD03.
Park HY, Seo IT, Choi MK, et al. Microstructure and piezoelectric properties of the CuO-added (Na0.5K0.5) (Nb0.97Sb0.03)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. J Appl Phys 2008, 104: 034103.
Liang WF, Xiao DQ, Wu JG, et al. Origin of high mechanical quality factor in CuO-doped (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics. Front Mater Sci 2014, 8: 165–175.
Lin DM, Kwok KW, Chan HLW. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of KxNa1−xNbO3 lead-free ceramics with MnO2 and CuO doping. J Alloys Compd 2008, 461: 273–278.
Hiruma Y, Watanabe T, Nagata H, et al. Piezoelectric properties of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-based solid solution for lead-free high-power applications. Jpn J Appl Phys 2008, 47: 7659–7663.
Zhang SJ, Lee HJ, Shrout TR. NBT based lead-free piezoelectric materials for high power applications. U.S. Patent 8 501 031, Aug. 2013.
Lee HJ, Ural SO, Chen L, et al. High power characteristics of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2012, 95: 3383–3386.
Wang K, Li JF. Domain engineering of lead-free Li-modified (K,Na)NbO3 polycrystals with highly enhanced piezoelectricity. Adv Funct Mater 2010, 20: 1924–1929.
Wang K, Li JF. (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics: Phase transition, sintering and property enhancement. J Adv Ceram 2012, 1: 24–37.
Zhang MH, Wang K, Du YJ, et al. High and temperature-insensitive piezoelectric strain in alkali niobate lead-free perovskite. J Am Chem Soc 2017, 139: 3889–3895.
Nguyen TN, Thong HC, Zhu ZX, et al. Hardening effect in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. J Mater Res 2021, 36: 996–1014.
Liu H, Liu YX, Song AZ, et al. (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics: One more step to boost applications. Natl Sci Rev 2022, 9: nwac101.
Peel MD, Ashbrook SE, Lightfoot P. Unusual phase behavior in the piezoelectric perovskite system, LixNa1−xNbO3. Inorg Chem 2013, 52: 8872–8880.
Yuzyuk YI, Gagarina E, Simon P, et al. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering investigations of (LixNa1−x)NbO3 solid solutions: Evidence of the rhombohedral phase. Phys Rev B 2004, 69: 144105.
Mitra S, Kulkarni AR, Prakash O. Densification behaviour and two stage master sintering curve in lithium sodium niobate ceramics. Ceram Int 2013, 39: S65–S68.
Bazzan M, Fontana M. Preface to special topic: Lithium niobate properties and applications: Reviews of emerging trends. Appl Phys Rev 2015, 2: 040501.
Zhong WL, Zhang PL, Zhao HS, et al. Low-temperature phase transition of a crystal in the lithium sodium niobate system. Phys Rev B 1992, 46: 10583–10587.
Juang YD, Dai SB, Wang YC, et al. Low temperature phase transition of Li0.12Na0.88NbO3 studied by Raman scattering. J Appl Phys 2000, 88: 742–745.
Yang D, Gao J, Shu L, et al. Lead-free antiferroelectric niobates AgNbO3 and NaNbO3 for energy storage applications. J Mater Chem A 2020, 8: 23724–23737.
Lim JB, Zhang SJ, Lee HJ, et al. Shear-mode piezoelectric properties of modified-(K,Na)NbO3 ceramics for “hard” lead-free materials. J Am Ceram Soc 2010, 93: 2519–2521.
Zhang MH, Hu CP, Zhou Z, et al. Determination of polarization states in (K,Na)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric crystal. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 204–209.
Mitra S, Kulkarni AR, Prakash O. Diffuse phase transition and electrical properties of lead-free piezoelectric (LixNa1−x)NbO3 (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary. J Appl Phys 2013, 114: 064106.
Mishra SK, Shinde AB, Krishna PSR. Effect of particle size and strain on phase stability of (Li0.06 Na0.94)NbO3. J Appl Phys 2014, 115: 174104.
Nitta T. Properties of sodium–lithium niobate solid solution ceramics with small lithium concentrations. J Am Ceram Soc 1968, 51: 623–630.
Hardiman B, Henson RM, Reeves CP, et al. Hot pressing of sodium lithium niobate ceramics with perovskite-type structures. Ferroelectrics 1976, 12: 157–159.
Mitra S, Kulkarni AR, Prakash O. Diffuse phase transition in Li0.12Na0.88NbO3 piezoelectric ceramics. AIP Conf Proc 2013, 1512: 1256–1257.
Dixon CAL, Lightfoot P. Complex octahedral tilt phases in the ferroelectric perovskite system LixNa1−xNbO3. Phys Rev B 2018, 97: 224105.
Pozdnyakova I, Navrotsky A, Shilkina L, et al. Thermodynamic and structural properties of sodium lithium niobate solid solutions. J Am Ceram Soc 2002, 85: 379–384.
Kimura M, Ogawa T, Ando A, et al. Piezoelectric properties of metastable (Li,Na)NbO3 ceramics. In: Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, Nara, Japan, 2002: 339–342.
Aoyagi R, Maeda M, Yokota T, et al. Effects of heat treatment after poling on dielectric and piezoelectric properties in Li0.06Na0.94NbO3 ceramics. Jpn J Appl Phys 2013, 52: 09KD12.
Li CBW, Thong HC, Liu YX, et al. Thermally induced domain reconfiguration in ferroelectric alkaline niobate. Adv Funct Materials 2022, 32: 2204421.
Darlington CNW, Megaw HD. The low-temperature phase transition of sodium niobate and the structure of the low-temperature phase, N. Acta Crystallogr B 1973, 29: 2171–2185.
Glazer AM. Simple ways of determining perovskite structures. Acta Crystallogr A 1975, 31: 756–762.
Pardo L, Durán-Martin P, Mercurio JP, et al. Temperature behaviour of structural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of sol–gel processed ceramics of the system LiNbO3–NaNbO3. J Phys Chem Solids 1997, 58: 1335–1339.
Grueninger HW, Zeyfang RR, Gauntlett M. Strukturelle und dielektrische eigenschaften von lithiumniobat–mischkristallen. Ber Dtsch Keram Ges 1975, 52: 238–239. (in German)
Reznichenko LA, Shilkina LA. Study of morphotropic regions in the system of solid solutions NaNbO3–LiNbO3. Izv AN USSR Ser Phys 1975, 39: 1118–1121.
Belyaev IN, Nalbandyan VB, Ivanov YA. Subsolidus solubility of lithium niobate in sodium niobate: Metastability of segnetoelectric perovskite phases. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Neorg Mater 1984, 20: 491–494.
Radyush YV, Olekhnovich NM, Vyshatko NP, et al. Structural phase transitions of high-pressure LixNa1−xNbO3 solid solutions. Inorg Mater 2004, 40: 971–975.
Mishra SK, Choudhury N, Chaplot SL, et al. Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: Neutron diffraction and theoretical studies. Phys Rev B 2007, 76: 024110.
Mishra SK, Mittal R, Pomjakushin VY, et al. Phase stability and structural temperature dependence in sodium niobate: A high-resolution powder neutron diffraction study. Phys Rev B 2011, 83: 134105.
Mishra SK, Gupta MK, Mittal R, et al. Suppression of antiferroelectric state in NaNbO3 at high pressure from in situ neutron diffraction. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101: 242907.
Henson RM, Zeyfang RR, Kiehl KV. Dielectric and electromechanical properties of (Li,Na)NbO3 ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 1977, 60: 15–17.
Von der Mühll R, Sadel A, Ravez J, et al. Etude des transitions ferroelectrique-paraelectrique des composes du systeme NaNbO3–LiNbO3. Solid State Commun 1979, 31: 151–156. (in French)
Shilkina LA, Reznichenko LA, Kupriyanov MF, et al. Phase-transitions in system of (Na1−xLix)NbO3 solid-solutions. Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiz 1977, 47: 2173–2178.
Shanker V, Samal SL, Pradhan GK, et al. Nanocrystalline NaNbO3 and NaTaO3: Rietveld studies, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric properties. Solid State Sci 2009, 11: 562–569.
Rubio-Marcos F, Bañares MA, Romero JJ, et al. Correlation between the piezoelectric properties and the structure of lead-free KNN-modified ceramics, studied by Raman spectroscopy. J Raman Spectrosc 2011, 42: 639–643.
Jiménez R, Sanjuán ML, Jiménez B. Stabilization of the ferroelectric phase and relaxor-like behaviour in low Li content sodium niobates. J Phys Condens Matter 2004, 16: 7493–7510.
Nobre MAL, Lanfredi S. Phase transition in sodium lithium niobate polycrystal: An overview based on impedance spectroscopy. J Phys Chem Solids 2001, 62: 1999–2006.
Mishra SK, Krishna PSR, Shinde AB, et al. High temperature phase stability in Li0.12Na0.88NbO3: A combined powder X-ray and neutron diffraction study. J Appl Phys 2015, 118: 094101.
Chen F, Li YH, Gao GY, et al. Intergranular stress induced phase transition in CaZrO3 modified KNN-based lead-free piezoelectrics. J Am Ceram Soc 2015, 98: 1372–1376.
Tripathi S, Pandey D, Mishra SK, et al. Morphotropic phase-boundary-like characteristic in a lead-free and non-ferroelectric (1−x)NaNbO3xCaTiO3 system. Phys Rev B 2008, 77: 052104.
Garcia-Martin S, King G, Urones-Garrote E, et al. Spontaneous superlattice formation in the doubly ordered perovskite KLaMnWO6. Chem Mater 2011, 23: 163–170.
Dixon CAL, McNulty JA, Huband S, et al. Unprecedented phase transition sequence in the perovskite Li0.2Na0.8NbO3. IUCrJ 2017, 4: 215–222.
Gao Y, Wang JJ, Wu L, et al. Tunable magnetic and electrical behaviors in perovskite oxides by oxygen octahedral tilting. Sci China Mater 2015, 58: 302–312.
Megaw HD. Crystal structure of barium titanate. Nature 1945, 155: 484–485.
Bhalla AS, Guo R, Roy R. The perovskite structure—A review of its role in ceramic science and technology. Mater Res Innov 2000, 4: 3–26.
Eng HW, Barnes PW, Auer BM, et al. Investigations of the electronic structure of d0 transition metal oxides belonging to the perovskite family. J Solid State Chem 2003, 175: 94–109.
Tan Z, Xie SX, Jiang LM, et al. Oxygen octahedron tilting, electrical properties and mechanical behaviors in alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. J Materiomics 2019, 5: 372–384.
Zeyfang RR, Henson RM, Maier WJ. Temperature- and time-dependent properties of polycrystalline (Li,Na)NbO3 solid solutions. J Appl Phys 1977, 48: 3014–3017.
Zhang PL, Zhong WL, Zhao HS, et al. An unusual pyroelectric response. Solid State Commun 1988, 67: 1215–1217.
Mitra S, Patro PK, Kulkarni AR. Effect of alkaline excess on sintering, microstructural, and electrical properties of Li0.12Na0.88NbO3 ceramics. J Mater Sci 2016, 51: 9031–9042.
Chen Q, Peng ZH, Liu H, et al. The crystalline structure and phase-transitional behavior of (Li0.12Na0.88)(Nb1−x%Sbx%)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with high Qm. J Am Ceram Soc 2010, 93: 2788–2794.
Palatnikov MN, Efremov VV, Sidorov NV, et al. Properties of LixNa1−xTa0.1Nb0.9O3 ferroelectric ceramic solid solutions. Inorg Mater 2009, 45: 1423–1428.
Sadel A, von der Muhll R, Ravez J, et al. Ferroelectric and pyroelectric studies of a crystal of composition Li0.02Na0.98NbO3. Ferroelectrics 1983, 47: 169–175.
Kimura M, Kawada S, Shiratsuyu K, et al. Piezoelectric properties and applications of high Qm (Li,Na)NbO3 ceramics after heat treatment. Key Eng Mater 2004, 269: 3–6.
Aoyagi R, Iwata M, Maeda M. Piezoelectric properties and depolarization temperature of NaNbO3–LiNbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Key Eng Mater 2008, 388: 233–236.
Reznichenko LA, Shilkina LA, Razumovskaya ON, et al. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of NaNbO3-based solid solutions. Inorg Mater 2003, 39: 139–151.
Pardo L, Duran P, Millar CE, et al. High temperature electromechanical behaviour of sodium substituted lithium niobate ceramics. Ferroelectrics 1996, 186: 281–285.
Ohashi T, Aoyagi R, Maeda M, et al. Electrical properties and polarization reversal in (Li,Na)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Key Eng Mater 2011, 485: 69–72.
Cohen RE. Origin of ferroelectricity in perovskite oxides. Nature 1992, 358: 136–138.
Cheng XJ, Wu JG, Xiao DQ, et al. An enhanced mechanical quality factor and a low dielectric loss in lithium sodium niobate lead-free ceramics. Ceram Int 2012, 38: 4023–4027.
Peng ZH, Chen Q, Yan DX, et al. Characterization of potassium-modified Li0.12Na0.88Nb0.97Sb0.03O3 lead-free piezoceramics. J Alloys Compd 2014, 582: 834–838.
Abubakarov AG, Pavelko AA, Sadykov KA, et al. Influence of CuO, MnO2, NiO, Bi2O3, and Fe2O3 modifiers on the crystalline structure and electrophysical properties of (Na,Li)NbO3 solid solutions. J Mater Sci 2017, 52: 2142–2157.
Mitra S, Kulkarni AR. Synthesis and electrical properties of new lead-free (100−x)(Li0.12Na0.88)NbO3xBaTiO3 (0 ≤ x≤ 40) piezoelectric ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2016, 99: 888–895.
Aoyagi R, Rinaldi R, Sumiyama N, et al. Electrical properties and phase transition behavior of (Li,Na,Ba)(Nb,Ti)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Key Eng Mater 2010, 421–422: 42–45.
Tan Z, Xing J, Wu B, et al. Novel rhombohedral and tetragonal phase boundary with high TC in alkali niobate ceramics. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 2017, 28: 12851–12857.
Cen ZY, Bian SS, Xu Z, et al. Simultaneously improving piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (KNN)-based ceramics sintered in reducing atmosphere. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 820–831.
Palatnikov MN, Efremov VV, Sidorov NV, et al. The effects of thermo-baric synthesis on the structure and properties of the ferroelectric Li0.125Na0.875NbO3 solid solution. Ferroelectrics 2014, 469: 120–129.
Aoyagi R, Takeda A, Iwata M, et al. Depolarization temperature shift of Li0.08Na0.92NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics by high-electric-field poling. Jpn J Appl Phys 2008, 47: 7689–7692.
Fujii I, Kohori A, Adachi H, et al. Domain structures of (Li,Na)NbO3 epitaxial films. J Appl Phys 2017, 122: 044104.
Balluffi RW. Vacancy defect mobilities and binding energies obtained from annealing studies. J Nucl Mater 1978, 69–70: 240–263.
Vrancken B, Thijs L, Kruth JP, et al. Heat treatment of Ti6Al4V produced by Selective Laser Melting: Microstructure and mechanical properties. J Alloys Compd 2012, 541: 177–185.
Zhao CH, Gao S, Yang TN, et al. Precipitation hardening in ferroelectric ceramics. Adv Mater 2021, 33: 2102421.
Zhao CH, Gao S, Kleebe HJ, et al. Coherent precipitates with strong domain wall pinning in alkaline niobate ferroelectrics. Adv Mater 2022, 34: 2202379.
Hejazi M, Taghaddos E, Gurdal E, et al. High power performance of manganese-doped BNT-based Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2014, 97: 3192–3196.
Liu YX, Thong HC, Zhao CL, et al. Influence of trace zirconia addition on the properties of (K,Na)NbO3 solid solutions. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 6914–6923.
Zhang SJ, Lim JB, Lee HJ, et al. Characterization of hard piezoelectric lead-free ceramics. IEEE T Ultrason Ferr 2009, 56: 1523–1527.
Slabki M, Wu J, Weber M, et al. Anisotropy of the high-power piezoelectric properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 6008–6017.
Slabki M, Kodumudi Venkataraman L, Checchia S, et al. Direct observation of domain wall motion and lattice strain dynamics in ferroelectrics under high-power resonance. Phys Rev B 2021, 103: 174113.
Bhudolia SK, Gohel G, Leong KF, et al. Advances in ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic composites: A review. Materials 2020, 13: 1284.
Fan ZM, Tan XL. In-situ TEM study of the aging micromechanisms in a BaTiO3-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 3472–3477.
Okayasu M, Ogawa T, Sasaki Y. In situ TEM observations of microstructural characteristics of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramic during heating to 1000 ℃. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 16306–16312.
Sha HZ, Cui JZ, Yu R. Deep sub-angstrom resolution imaging by electron ptychography with misorientation correction. Sci Adv 2022, 8: eabn2275.
Tang J, Wu YD, Kong LY, et al. Two-dimensional characterization of three-dimensional magnetic bubbles in Fe3Sn2 nanostructures. Natl Sci Rev 2021, 8: nwaa200.
Jannis D, Hofer C, Gao C, et al. Event driven 4D STEM acquisition with a Timepix3 detector: Microsecond dwell time and faster scans for high precision and low dose applications. Ultramicroscopy 2022, 233: 113423.
Gao J, Li W, Liu J, et al. Local atomic configuration in pristine and A-site doped silver niobate perovskite antiferroelectrics. Research 2022, 2022: 9782343.
Jeong IK, Park CY, Ahn JS, et al. Ferroelectric-relaxor crossover in Ba(Ti1−xZrx)O3 studied using neutron total scattering measurements and reverse Monte Carlo modeling. Phys Rev B 2010, 81: 214119.
Zhang MH, Hadaeghi N, Egert S, et al. Design of lead-free antiferroelectric (1−x)NaNbO3xSrSnO3 compositions guided by first-principles calculations. Chem Mater 2021, 33: 266–274.
Chen NK, Bang J, Li XB, et al. Optical subpicosecond nonvolatile switching and electron–phonon coupling in ferroelectric materials. Phys Rev B 2020, 102: 184115.
Thong HC, Xu B, Wang K. Distinctive Nb–O hybridization at domain walls in orthorhombic KNbO3 ferroelectric perovskite. Appl Phys Lett 2022, 120: 052902.
Tao H, Wu HJ, Liu Y, et al. Ultrahigh performance in lead-free piezoceramics utilizing a relaxor slush polar state with multiphase coexistence. J Am Chem Soc 2019, 141: 13987–13994.
Wu LJ, Zheng T, Wu JG. Excellent fatigue resistance in Sb nonstoichiometric KNN-based ceramics by engineering relaxor multiphase state. J Eur Ceram Soc 2022, 42: 4888–4897.
Wu J, Xiao D, Zhu J. Potassium-sodium niobate lead-free piezoelectric materials: Past, present, and future of phase boundaries. Chem Rev 2015, 115: 2559–2595.
Li P, Zhai JW, Shen B, et al. Ultrahigh piezoelectric properties in textured (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics. Adv Mater 2018, 30: 1705171.
Lin JF, Cao YB, Zhu K, et al. Ultrahigh energy harvesting properties in temperature-insensitive eco-friendly high-performance KNN-based textured ceramics. J Mater Chem A 2022, 10: 7978–7988.
Puthucheri S, Pandey PK, Gajbhiye NS, et al. Microstructural, electrical, and magnetic properties of acceptor-doped nanostructured lead zirconate titanate. J Am Ceram Soc 2011, 94: 3941–3947.
Slouka C, Kainz T, Navickas E, et al. The effect of acceptor and donor doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations in lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Materials 2016, 9: 945.
Li JW, Liu YX, Thong HC, et al. Effect of ZnO doping on (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics: Enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric performance. J Alloys Compd 2020, 847: 155936.
Zhao ZH, Lv YK, Dai YJ, et al. Ultrahigh electro-strain in acceptor-doped KNN lead-free piezoelectric ceramics via defect engineering. Acta Mater 2020, 200: 35–41.
Höfling M, Zhou XD, Riemer LM, et al. Control of polarization in bulk ferroelectrics by mechanical dislocation imprint. Science 2021, 372: 961–964.
Waqar M, Wu HJ, Ong KP, et al. Origin of giant electric-field-induced strain in faulted alkali niobate films. Nat Commun 2022, 13: 3922.
Liu HJ, Wu HJ, Ong KP, et al. Giant piezoelectricity in oxide thin films with nanopillar structure. Science 2020, 369: 292–297.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 1-23
Cite this article:
LI C-B-W, LI Z, WANG J, et al. Sodium lithium niobate lead-free piezoceramics for high-power applications: Fundamental, progress, and perspective. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2023, 12(1): 1-23.








Web of Science






Received: 09 September 2022
Revised: 23 October 2022
Accepted: 29 October 2022
Published: 08 December 2022
© The Author(s) 2022.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit