The concept of healthiness and sustainability have triggered consumers into choosing healthier food, especially “clean-label” products. Porcine skin is a natural “clean-label” raw material, and direct usage of whole pork skin as an additive has been proven as an efficient way to deal with the by-product issues and also satisfies the “clean label” demands of consumers. However, efficient approaches to convert bulk skin into handy powders in a green-fabrication manner while maintaining its unique properties have yet to be fully investigated. Herein, we provided two green approaches, drying-grinding, and wetting-grinding, to prepare pork skin functional protein powder (FPP), and their chemical composition, structure, properties, stability, and functionality are systematically investigated. Specifically, FPP prepared by two methods exhibit similar chemical composition and great thermal stability. Notably, FPP prepared by drying-grinding method is superior in flow ability, water dispersion, and texture properties of FPP gels as compared to wetting-grinding method. Structural analyses revealed that the superior properties of FPP prepared by drying-grinding method depend on the intrinsic natural triple helix structure of collagen. Overall, this work revealed the underlying key factors for the preparation of FPP with excellent properties, and highlighted that the FPP prepared by drying-grinding method is more suitable for practical application as “clean-label” additives in the food industry.
A. T. Noguerol, M. J. Pagán, P. García-Segovia, et al., Green or clean? Perception of clean label plant-based products by omnivorous, vegan, vegetarian and flexitarian consumers, Food Res. Int. 149 (2021) 110652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110652.
S. Shim, S. H. Seo, Y. Lee, et al., Consumers’ knowledge and safety perceptions of food additives: evaluation on the effectiveness of transmitting information on preservatives, Food Control 22 (2011) 1054–1060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.01.001.
J. Aschemann-Witzel, P. Varela, A. Peschel, Consumers’ categorization of food ingredients: Do consumers perceive them as ‘clean label’ producers expect? An exploration with projective mapping, Food Qual. Prefer. 71 (2019) 117–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.06.003.
B. Jeganathan, T. Vasanthan, F. Temelli, Isolation of clean-label faba bean (Vicia faba L.) proteins: a comparative study of mild fractionation methods against traditional technologies, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 84 (2023) 103285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2023.103285.
A. Diantom, F. Boukid, E. Carini, et al., Can potato fiber efficiently substitute xanthan gum in modulating chemical properties of tomato products?, Food Hydrocoll. 101 (2019) 105508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.105508.
A. K. F. I. Câmara, V. A. S. Vidal, M. Santos, et al., Reducing phosphate in emulsified meat products by adding chia (Salvia hispanica L.) mucilage in powder or gel format: a clean label technological strategy, Meat Sci. 163 (2020) 108085. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108085.
R. H. Belmiro, L. D. C. Oliveira, A. A. L. Tribst, et al., Techno-functional properties of coffee by-products are modified by dynamic high pressure: a case study of clean label ingredient in cookies, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 154 (2022) 112601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.112601.
B. Jeganathan, J. Gao, F. Temelli, et al., Potential of air-currents assisted particle separation (ACAPS) technology for hybrid fractionation of clean-label faba bean (Vicia faba L.) protein, J. Food Eng. 339 (2023) 111265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2022.111265.
S. Min, Y. Jo, S. Park, Potential application of static hydrothermal processing to produce the protein hydrolysates from porcine skin by-products, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 83 (2017) 18–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.04.073.
C. Tang, K. Zhou, Y. Zhu, et al., Collagen and its derivatives: from structure and properties to their applications in food industry, Food Hydrocoll. 131 (2022) 107748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2022.107748.
A. M. Puszkarska, D. Frenkel, L. J. Colwell, et al., Using sequence data to predict the self-assembly of supramolecular collagen structures, Biophys. J. 121 (2023) 3023–3033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2022.07.019.
Z. Li, C. Ruan, X. Niu, Collagen-based bioinks for regenerative medicine: Fabrication, application and prospective, Medicine in Novel Technology and Devices. 17 (2023) 100211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medntd.2023.100211.
W. Peng, D. Li, K. Dai, et al., Recent progress of collagen, chitosan, alginate and other hydrogels in skin repair and wound dressing applications, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 208 (2022) 400–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.03.002.
M. Wang, Z. Yin, M. Zeng, Construction of 3D printable Pickering emulsion gels using complexes of fiber polysaccharide-protein extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis residues and gelatin for fat replacer, Food Hydrocoll. 137 (2023) 108350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2022.108350.
X. Feng, H. Dai, Y. Yu, et al., Adjusting the interfacial property and emulsifying property of cellulose nanofibrils by ultrasonic treatment combined with gelatin addition, Food Hydrocoll. 133 (2022) 107905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2022.107905.
S. Park, H. Kim, Effect of wet- and dry-salting with various salt concentrations on pork skin for extraction of gelatin, Food Hydrocoll. 131 (2022) 107772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2022.107772.
L. A. A. dos Santos Alves, J. M. Lorenzo, C. A. A. Gonçalves, et al., Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers, Meat Sci. 121 (2016) 73–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.06.001.
M. D. Santos, P. E. S. Munekata, M. Pateiro, et al., Pork skin-based emulsion gels as animal fat replacers in hot-dog style sausages, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 132 (2020) 109845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109845.
A. Abbou, N. Kadri, F. Dahmoune, et al., Optimising functional properties and chemical composition of Pinus halepensis Mill. seeds protein concentrates, Food Hydrocoll. 100 (2019) 105416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.105416.
D. Arepally, T. K. Goswami, Effect of inlet air temperature and gum Arabic concentration on encapsulation of probiotics by spray drying, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 99 (2018) 583–593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.10.022.
X. Qi, L. Cheng, X. Li, et al., Effect of cooking methods on solubility and nutrition quality of brown rice powder, Food Chem. 274 (2018) 444–451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.164.
C. Shi, C. Bi, M. Ding, et al., Polymorphism and stability of nanostructures of three types of collagens from bovine flexor tendon, rat tail, and tilapia skin, Food Hydrocoll. 93 (2019) 253–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.02.035.
A. Sionkowska, J. Kozłowska, M. Skorupska, et al., Isolation and characterization of collagen from the skin of Brama australis, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 80 (2015) 605–609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.07.032.
M. Andonegi, K. D. L. Caba, P. Guerrero, Effect of citric acid on collagen sheets processed by compression, Food Hydrocoll. 100 (2020) 105427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.105427.
J. H. Muyonga, C. G. B. Cole, K. G. Duodu, Characterisation of acid soluble collagen from skins of young and adult Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Food Chem. 85 (2004) 81–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.06.006.
C. Stani, L. Vaccari, E. Mitri, et al., FTIR investigation of the secondary structure of type I collagen: new insight into the amide III band, Spectrochim Acta Part A 229 (2020) 118006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.118006.
K. Pietrucha, Changes in denaturation and rheological properties of collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds as a result of temperature dependencies, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 36 (2005) 299–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2005.07.004.
The work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31972102, 32201928), National Key R & D Program of China (2021YFD21001005), Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (SCTB2022NSCQ-MSX0515), Special Key Project of Chongqing Technology Innovation and Application Development (cstc2021jscx-cylhX0014), the Ecological Fishery Technological System of Chongqing Municipal Agricultural and Rural Committee under Grant (4322000102), Key Science and Technology Innovation Project of Chongqing Aquatic Science and Technology Innovation Alliance (CQFTIO2021012).
Food Science of Animal Products published by Tsinghua University Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).