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This study aimed to investigate the relationship among physicochemical quality, water status and protein degradation of pork samples during superheated steam (SHS) cooking. Pork samples were cooked with SHS (120, 150 and 180 ℃ and traditional steam (TS) to 40, 60 and 80 ℃. The results showed that SHS cooking at 150 and 180 ℃ significantly reduced the values of lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), cooking loss and increased the value of redness (a*). Moreover, SHS cooked samples had lower shear force, hardness and chewiness value than TS cooked samples, indicating a better mouth feel quality. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis results showed that relaxation time T21, T22 and T23 increased with SHS temperature, T2 (TS-cooked) < T2 (SHS-cooked), SHS had higher P22 values but lower P23 values than TS. The secondary structure of pork protein cooked by TS tends to be loose than SHS, promoting more immobilized water into free water. Furthermore, SHS led to a low exposure of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic bonds which reduced protein aggregation. The protein degradation and water status could explain the quality differences between SHS and TS cooked pork.


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Superheated steam cooking improved meat quality: evidenced by water status and protein degradation

Show Author's information Jiajia Fang1,2Jiapeng Li2( )Junna Yang2Biao Qi2Chunjiang Zhang1( )
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Technical Integration Laboratory of Chinese Meat Dishes Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Logistics (IFST-CAAS), China General Chamber of Commerce, Beijing 100193, China
China Meat Research Center, Beijing Key Laboratory of Meat Processing Technology, Beijing Academy of Food Sciences, Beijing 100068, China

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the relationship among physicochemical quality, water status and protein degradation of pork samples during superheated steam (SHS) cooking. Pork samples were cooked with SHS (120, 150 and 180 ℃ and traditional steam (TS) to 40, 60 and 80 ℃. The results showed that SHS cooking at 150 and 180 ℃ significantly reduced the values of lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), cooking loss and increased the value of redness (a*). Moreover, SHS cooked samples had lower shear force, hardness and chewiness value than TS cooked samples, indicating a better mouth feel quality. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis results showed that relaxation time T21, T22 and T23 increased with SHS temperature, T2 (TS-cooked) < T2 (SHS-cooked), SHS had higher P22 values but lower P23 values than TS. The secondary structure of pork protein cooked by TS tends to be loose than SHS, promoting more immobilized water into free water. Furthermore, SHS led to a low exposure of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic bonds which reduced protein aggregation. The protein degradation and water status could explain the quality differences between SHS and TS cooked pork.

Keywords: texture, pork, superheated steam cooking, cooking loss, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical forces

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Publication history

Received: 16 June 2023
Revised: 30 June 2023
Accepted: 05 July 2023
Published: 22 August 2023
Issue date: June 2023

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© Beijing Academy of Food Sciences 2023.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the National Key R & D Program of China (2022YFD2100500).

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Food Science of Animal Products published by Tsinghua University Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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