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Grid-tie voltage source converters (VSCs) can operate in three distinct modes: AC-dominant, DC-dominant, and balanced, depending on the placement of the stiff voltage sources. The distinct operation modes of the VSCs traditionally demand different synchronization control techniques, leading to heterogeneous VSCs. It is challenging for the power system to accommodate and coordinate heterogeneous VSCs. A promising universal synchronization control technique for VSCs is the DC-link voltage synchronization control (DVSC) based on a lead compensator (LC). The LC DVSC stabilizes both the DC and AC voltages of a VSC while achieving synchronization with the AC grid. This results in a dual-port grid-forming (DGFM) characteristic for the VSC. However, there has been very limited study on the stability and synchronization controller design of the VSCs with the LC DVSC operating in various modes. To bridge this gap, the paper presents a quantitative analysis on the stability and steady-state performance of the LC DVSC in all three operation modes of the DGFM VSC. Based on the analysis, the paper provides step-by-step design guidelines for the LC DVSC. Furthermore, the paper uncovers an instability issue related to the LC DVSC when the DGFM VSC operates in the balanced mode. To tackle the instability issue, a virtual resistance control is proposed and integrated with the LC DVSC. Simulation results validate the analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the DGFM VSC with the LC DVSC designed using the proposed guidelines in all three operation modes. Overall, the paper demonstrates the feasibility of employing the DGFM VSC with the LC DVSC for all three possible operation modes, which can help overcome the challenges associated with accommodating and coordinating heterogeneous VSCs in the power system.


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Analysis and synchronization controller design of dual-port grid-forming voltage-source converters for different operation modes

Show Author's information Shuo ZhangWei Qiao( )Liyan QuJun Wang
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, USA

Abstract

Grid-tie voltage source converters (VSCs) can operate in three distinct modes: AC-dominant, DC-dominant, and balanced, depending on the placement of the stiff voltage sources. The distinct operation modes of the VSCs traditionally demand different synchronization control techniques, leading to heterogeneous VSCs. It is challenging for the power system to accommodate and coordinate heterogeneous VSCs. A promising universal synchronization control technique for VSCs is the DC-link voltage synchronization control (DVSC) based on a lead compensator (LC). The LC DVSC stabilizes both the DC and AC voltages of a VSC while achieving synchronization with the AC grid. This results in a dual-port grid-forming (DGFM) characteristic for the VSC. However, there has been very limited study on the stability and synchronization controller design of the VSCs with the LC DVSC operating in various modes. To bridge this gap, the paper presents a quantitative analysis on the stability and steady-state performance of the LC DVSC in all three operation modes of the DGFM VSC. Based on the analysis, the paper provides step-by-step design guidelines for the LC DVSC. Furthermore, the paper uncovers an instability issue related to the LC DVSC when the DGFM VSC operates in the balanced mode. To tackle the instability issue, a virtual resistance control is proposed and integrated with the LC DVSC. Simulation results validate the analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the DGFM VSC with the LC DVSC designed using the proposed guidelines in all three operation modes. Overall, the paper demonstrates the feasibility of employing the DGFM VSC with the LC DVSC for all three possible operation modes, which can help overcome the challenges associated with accommodating and coordinating heterogeneous VSCs in the power system.

Keywords: voltage-source converter (VSC), synchronization stability, DC-link voltage synchronization control (DVSC), dual-port grid-forming (DGFM) control, grid forming (GFM)

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Publication history

Received: 08 January 2024
Revised: 25 February 2024
Accepted: 05 March 2024
Published: 31 March 2024
Issue date: March 2024

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© The author(s) 2024.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research.

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This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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