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Review | Open Access

Applications of vacuum vapor deposition for perovskite solar cells: A progress review

Hang Li1Mingzhen Liu2Meicheng Li3Hyesung Park4Nripan Mathews5Yabing Qi6Xiaodan Zhang7Henk J. Bolink8Karl Leo9Michael Graetzel10Chenyi Yi1( )
State Key Laboratory of Power System, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of New Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Semiconductor Materials and Devices Engineering, Perovtronics Research Center, Low Dimensional Carbon Materials Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea
Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553, Singapore
Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit (EMSSU), Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan
Institute of Photoelectronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Renewable Energy Conversion and Storage Center, Solar Energy Conversion Center, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China
Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático J. Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna, Spain
Integrated Centre for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP) and the Centre for Advancing Electronics Dresden (CFAED), Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces(LPI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have made substantial progress in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability in the past decade thanks to the advancements in perovskite deposition methodology, charge transport layer (CTL) optimization, and encapsulation technology. Solution-based methods have been intensively investigated and a 25.7% certified efficiency has been achieved. Vacuum vapor deposition protocols were less studied, but have nevertheless received increasing attention from industry and academia due to the great potential for large-area module fabrication, facile integration with tandem solar cell architectures, and compatibility with industrial manufacturing approaches. In this article, we systematically discuss the applications of several promising vacuum vapor deposition techniques, namely thermal evaporation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD), magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and electron beam evaporation (e-beam evaporation) in the fabrication of CTLs, perovskite absorbers, encapsulants, and connection layers for monolithic tandem solar cells.



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Pages 434-452
Cite this article:
Li H, Liu M, Li M, et al. Applications of vacuum vapor deposition for perovskite solar cells: A progress review. iEnergy, 2022, 1(4): 434-452.










Received: 08 December 2022
Accepted: 16 December 2022
Published: 20 December 2022
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