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Dendrite growth of lithium (Li) metal anode severely hinders its practical application, while the situation becomes more serious at low temperatures due to the sluggish kinetics of Li-ion diffusion. This perspective is intended to clearly understand the energy chemistry of low-temperature Li metal batteries (LMBs). The low-temperature chemistries between LMBs and traditional Li-ion batteries are firstly compared to figure out the features of the low-temperature LMBs. Li deposition behaviors at low temperatures are then discussed concerning the variation in Li-ion diffusion behaviors and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) features. Subsequently, the strategies to enhance the diffusion kinetics of Li ions and suppress dendrite growth including designing electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces are analyzed. Finally, conclusions and outlooks are drawn to shed lights on the future design of high-performance low-temperature LMBs.


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A perspective on energy chemistry of low-temperature lithium metal batteries

Show Author's information He Liu1,2Xinbing Cheng1,3( )Chong Yan1,4Zeheng Li1Chenzi Zhao1,5Rong Xiang6Hong Yuan7Jiaqi Huang7( )Elena Kuzmina8Elena Karaseva8Vladimir Kolosnitsyn8Qiang Zhang1( )
Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
Shanxi Research Institute for Clean Energy, Tsinghua University, Taiyuan 030032, China
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, School of Vehicle and Mobility, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Advanced Research Institute of Multidisciplinary Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Ufa Institute of Chemistry UFRC RAS, Ufa 450054, Russia

Abstract

Dendrite growth of lithium (Li) metal anode severely hinders its practical application, while the situation becomes more serious at low temperatures due to the sluggish kinetics of Li-ion diffusion. This perspective is intended to clearly understand the energy chemistry of low-temperature Li metal batteries (LMBs). The low-temperature chemistries between LMBs and traditional Li-ion batteries are firstly compared to figure out the features of the low-temperature LMBs. Li deposition behaviors at low temperatures are then discussed concerning the variation in Li-ion diffusion behaviors and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) features. Subsequently, the strategies to enhance the diffusion kinetics of Li ions and suppress dendrite growth including designing electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces are analyzed. Finally, conclusions and outlooks are drawn to shed lights on the future design of high-performance low-temperature LMBs.

Keywords:

Lithium metal anode, lithium dendrite, low temperature, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), ion-solvent complex, organic electrolyte
Received: 24 December 2021 Revised: 02 February 2022 Accepted: 21 February 2022 Published: 25 March 2022 Issue date: March 2022
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Publication history

Received: 24 December 2021
Revised: 02 February 2022
Accepted: 21 February 2022
Published: 25 March 2022
Issue date: March 2022

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© The author(s) 2022

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (22179070, 22109083, 22108151, 22075029, and 22061132002), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (BX2021135, 2021TQ0164), the Seed Fund of Shanxi Research Institute for Clean Energy (SXKYJF015), the Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program, and the “Shuimu Tsinghua Scholar Program of Tsinghua University”.

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