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Review | Open Access

Development of glioblastoma organoids and their applications in personalized therapy

Can Xu1,*Xiaoye Yuan2,*Pengyu Hou2Ziru Li2Changsheng Wang1Chuan Fang1,3 ( )Yanli Tan2,3,4 ( )
School of Clinical Medicine, Hebei University, Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding 07100, China
School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding 07100, China
Hebei Key Laboratory of Precise Diagnosis and Treatment of Glioma, Baoding 071000, China
Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding 07100, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work.

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Abstract

Glioblastomas(GBMs) are the brain tumors with the highest malignancy and poorest prognoses. GBM is characterized by high heterogeneity and resistance to drug treatment. Organoids are 3-dimensional cultures that are constructed in vitro and comprise cell types highly similar to those in organs or tissues in vivo, thus simulating specific structures and physiological functions of organs. Organoids have been technically developed into an advanced ex vivo disease model used in basic and preclinical research on tumors. Brain organoids, which simulate the brain microenvironment while preserving tumor heterogeneity, have been used to predict patients' therapeutic responses to antitumor drugs, thus enabling a breakthrough in glioma research. GBM organoids provide an effective supplementary model that reflects human tumors' biological characteristics and functions in vitro more directly and accurately than traditional experimental models. Therefore, GBM organoids are widely applicable in disease mechanism research, drug development and screening, and glioma precision treatments. This review focuses on the development of various GBM organoid models and their applications in identifying new individualized therapies against drug-resistant GBM.

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Cancer Biology & Medicine
Pages 353-368
Cite this article:
Xu C, Yuan X, Hou P, et al. Development of glioblastoma organoids and their applications in personalized therapy. Cancer Biology & Medicine, 2023, 20(5): 353-368. https://doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2023.0061

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Received: 26 February 2023
Accepted: 07 May 2023
Published: 05 June 2023
©2023 Cancer Biology & Medicine.

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