Glioblastomas(GBMs) are the brain tumors with the highest malignancy and poorest prognoses. GBM is characterized by high heterogeneity and resistance to drug treatment. Organoids are 3-dimensional cultures that are constructed in vitro and comprise cell types highly similar to those in organs or tissues in vivo, thus simulating specific structures and physiological functions of organs. Organoids have been technically developed into an advanced ex vivo disease model used in basic and preclinical research on tumors. Brain organoids, which simulate the brain microenvironment while preserving tumor heterogeneity, have been used to predict patients' therapeutic responses to antitumor drugs, thus enabling a breakthrough in glioma research. GBM organoids provide an effective supplementary model that reflects human tumors' biological characteristics and functions in vitro more directly and accurately than traditional experimental models. Therefore, GBM organoids are widely applicable in disease mechanism research, drug development and screening, and glioma precision treatments. This review focuses on the development of various GBM organoid models and their applications in identifying new individualized therapies against drug-resistant GBM.
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