The purpose of this paper is to study the participation behaviors in the context of crowdsourcing projects from the perspective of gamification.
This paper first proposed a model to depict the effect of four categories of game elements on three types of motivation based upon several motivation theories, which may, in turn, influence user participation. Then, 5 × 2 between-subject Web experiments were designed for collecting data and validating this model.
Game elements which provide participants with rewards and recognitions or remind participants of the completion progress of their tasks may positively influence the extrinsic motivation, whereas game elements which can help create a fantasy scene may strengthen intrinsic motivation. Besides, recognition-kind and progress-kind game elements may trigger the internalization of extrinsic motivation. In addition, when a task is of high complexity, the effects from game elements on extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation will be less prominent, whereas the internalization of extrinsic motivation may benefit from the increase of task complexity.
This study may uncover the motivation mechanism of several different kinds of game elements, which may help to find which game elements are more effective in enhancing engagement and participation in crowdsourcing projects. Besides, as task complexity is used as a moderator, one may be able to identify whether task complexity is able to influence the effects from game elements on motivations. Last, but not the least, this study will indicate the interrelationship between game elements, individual motivation and user participation, which can be adapted by other scholars.
Amabile, T.M., Hill, K.G., Hennessey, B.A. and Tighe, E.M. (1994), “The work preference inventory: assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 66, pp. 950-967.
Brabham, D.C. (2008), “Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving: an introduction and cases”, The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 14, pp. 75-90.
Brabham, D.C. (2010), “Moving the crowd at threadless: motivations for participation in a crowdsourcing application”, Information, Communication and Society, Vol. 13, pp. 1122-1145.
Deterding, S. (2012), “Gamification: designing for motivation”, Magazine Interactions, Vol. 19 No. 4, pp. 14-17.
Festinger, L. (1954), “A theory of social comparison processes”, Human Relations, Vol. 7, pp. 117-140.
Fuller, J. (2010), “Refining virtual co-creation from a consumer perspective”, California Management Review, Vol. 52 No. 2.
Gagne, M. and Deci, E.L. (2005), “Self-determination theory and work motivation”,Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 331-362.
Gist, M.E. (1987), “Self-efficacy: a theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 183-211.
Hanus, M.D. and Fox, J. (2015), “Assessing the effects of gamification in the classroom: a longitudinal study on intrinsic motivation, social comparison, satisfaction, effort, and academic performance”,Computers & Education, Vol. 80, pp. 152-161.
Hoorens, V. and van Damme, C. (2012), “What do people infer from social comparisons? Bridges between social comparison and person perception”, Social & Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 6 No. 8, pp. 607-618.
Jiang, Z. and Benbasat, I. (2007), “The effects of presentation formats and task complexity on online consumers' product understanding”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 485-500.
Kavaliova, M., Virjee, F., Maehel, N. and Kleppe, I.A. (2016), “Crowdsourcing innovation and product development: gamification as a motivational driver”, Cogent Business & Management, Vol. 3 No. 1.
Liu, T.X., Yang, J., Adamic, L.A. and Chen, Y. (2014), “Crowd sourcing with all-pay auctions: a field experiment on Taskcn”,Management Science, Vol. 60 No. 8, pp. 2020-2037.
Mekler, E.D., Bruhlmann, F., Tuch, A.N. and Opwis, K. (2015), “Towards understanding the effects of individual gamification elements on intrinsic motivation and performance”, Computers in Human Behavior, pp. 1-10.
Neyer, A.K., Bullinger, A.C. and Moeslein, K.M. (2009), “Integrating inside and outside innovators: a socio-technical systems perspective”, R&D Management Journal, Vol. 39, pp. 410-419.
Robson, K., Plangger, K., Keitzmann, J.H., Mccarthy, A. and Pitt, L. (2015), “Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification”, Business Horizons, Vol. 58, pp. 411-420.
Sigala, M. (2015), “The application and impact of gamification funware on trip planning and experiences: the case of TripAdvisor’s funware”, Electron Markets, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 189-209.
Simoes, J., Redondo, R.D. and Vilas, A.F. (2013), “A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 345-353.
Sun, Y., Wang, N., Yin, C. and Zhang, J.X. (2015), “Understanding the relationships between motivators and effort in crowdsourcing marketplaces: a nonlinear analysis”, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 267-276.
Todd, P. and Benbasat, I. (1999), “Evaluation the impact of DSS, cognitive effort, and incentives on strategy selection”, Information Systems Research, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 356-375.
Trevino, L.K. and Webster, J. (1992), “Flow in computer-mediated communication: electronic mail and voice mail evaluation and impacts”, Communication Research, Vol. 19 No. 5, pp. 539-573.
Whitla, P. (2009), “Crowdsourcing and its application in marketing activities”, Journal of Contemporary Management Research, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 15-28.
Wong-On-Wing, B., Guo, L. and Lui, G. (2010), “Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and participation in budgeting: antecedents and consequences”, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 133-153.
Wood, R.E. (1986), “Task complexity: definition of a construct”, Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 60-82.
Wu, J. and Lu, X. (2013), “Effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivators on using utilitarian, hedonic, and dual-purposed information systems: a meta-analysis”, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 153-191.
This research is supported by the National Social Science Fund of China (Grant No.14AZD045).
Zhiyuan Zeng, Jian Tang and Tianmei Wang. Published in International Journal of Crowd Science. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode