Knowledge sharing has entered the stage of knowledge payment with the typical models of paid Q&A, live session, paid subscription, course column and community service. Numerous knowledge suppliers have begun to pour into the knowledge payment market, and users' willingness to pay for premium content has increased. However, the academic research on knowledge payment has just begun.
In this paper, the authors searched several bibliographic databases using keywords such as “knowledge payment”, “paid Q&A”, “pay for answer”, “social Q&A”, “paywall” and “online health consultation” and selected papers from aspects of research scenes, research topics, etc. Finally, a total of 116 articles were identified for combing studies.
This study found that in the early research, scholars paid attention to the definition of knowledge payment concept and the discrimination of typical models. With the continuous enrichment of research literature, the research direction has gradually been refined into three main branches from the perspective of research objects, i.e. knowledge provider, knowledge demander and knowledge payment platform.
This paper focuses on discussing and sorting out the key research issues from these three research genres. Finally, the authors found out conflicting and contradictory research results and research gaps in the existing research and then put forward the urgent research topics.
Aggarwal, R., Gopal, R., Gupta, A. and Singh, H. (2012), “Putting money where the mouths are: the relation between venture financing and electronic word-of-mouth”, Information Systems Research, Vol. 23, pp. 976-992.
Ambalov, I.A. (2018), “A meta-analysis of is continuance: an evaluation of the expectation-confirmation model”, Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 35 No. 6, pp. 1561-1571.
Atanasova, S., Kamin, T. and Petrič, G. (2018), “The benefits and challenges of online professional-patient interaction: comparing views between users and health professional moderators in an online health community”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 83, pp. 106-118.
Bock, G.W., Zmud, R.W., Kim, Y.G. and Lee, J.N. (2005), “Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 87-111.
Botsman, R. (2014), “Sharing's not just for start-ups”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 92 No. 9, pp. 23-25.
Brynjolfsson, E. and Smith, M.D. (2000), “Frictionless commerce? A comparison of internet and conventional retailers”, Management Science, Vol. 46 No. 4, pp. 563-585.
Cabrera, A., Collins, W.C. and Salgado, J.F. (2006), “Determinants of individual engagement in knowledge sharing”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 245-264.
Campo, S. and Jesús Yagüe, M. (2009), “Exploring non-linear effects of determinants on tourists' satisfaction”, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 127-138.
Cao, X., Liu, Y., Zhu, Z., Hu, J. and Chen, X. (2017), “Online selection of a physician by patients: empirical study from elaboration likelihood perspective”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 73, pp. 403-412.
Carillo, K., Scornavacca, E. and Za, S. (2017), “The role of media dependency in predicting continuance intention to use ubiquitous media systems”, Information and Management, Vol. 54 No. 3, pp. 317-335.
Chen, Y., Ho, T.-H. and Kim, Y.-M. (2010), “Knowledge market design: a field experiment at google answers”, Journal of Public Economic Theory, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 641-664.
Chevalier, J.A. and Mayzlin, D. (2006), “The effect of word of mouth on sales: online book reviews”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 345-354.
Chintagunta, P.K., Gopinath, S. and Venkataraman, S. (2010), “The effects of online user reviews on movie box office performance: accounting for sequential rollout and aggregation across local markets”,Marketing Science, Vol. 29 No. 5, pp. 944-957.
Chu, C.-W. and Lu, H.-P. (2007), “Factors influencing online music purchase intention in Taiwan: an empirical study based on the value-intention framework”, Internet Research, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 139-155.
Clemes, M.D., Gan, C., Kao, T.-H. and Choong, M. (2008), “An empirical analysis of customer satisfaction in international air travel”, Innovative Marketing, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 50-62.
Cummings, J.N. (2004), “Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization”, Management Science, Vol. 50 No. 3, pp. 352-364.
Dapkevicius, A. and Melnikas, B. (2009), “Influence of price and quality to customer satisfaction: Neuromarketing approach”, Mokslas - Lietuvos Ateitis, Vol. 1 No. 3, p. 17.
Dawes, J. (2009), “The effect of service price increases on customer retention: the moderating role of customer tenure and relationship breadth”, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 232-245.
Dhar, V. and Chang, E.A. (2009), “Does chatter matter? The impact of user-generated content on music sales”, Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 300-307.
Dholakia, U.M., Bagozzi, R.P. and Pearo, L.K. (2004), “A social influence model of consumer participation in network-and small-group-based virtual communities”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 241-263.
Ding, Y. (2018), “Modelling continued use of information systems from a forward-looking perspective: antecedents and consequences of hope and anticipated regret”, Information and Management, Vol. 55 No. 4, pp. 461-471.
Donovan, E.E., Lefebvre, L., Tardif, S., Brown, L.E. and Love, B. (2014), “Patterns of social support communicated in response to expressions of uncertainty in an online community of young adults with cancer”, Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 432-455.
Dorsey, D.W. (2003), “Hiring for knowledge-based competition”, Managing Knowledge for Sustained Competitive Advantage: Designing Strategies for Effective Human Resource Management, Vol. 21, p. 155.
Duan, W., Gu, B. and Whinston, A.B. (2008), “Do online reviews matter?-An empirical investigation of panel data”, Decision Support Systems, Vol. 45 No. 4, pp. 1007-1016.
Finley, K. (2013), “Trust in the sharing economy: an exploratory study”, Centre for Cultural Policy Studies, Vol. 2.
Galehbakhtiari, S. (2015), “A hermeneutic phenomenological study of online community participation: applications of fuzzy cognitive maps”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 48, pp. 637-643.
Guo, S., Guo, X., Fang, Y. and Vogel, D. (2017), “How doctors gain social and economic returns in online health-care communities: a professional capital perspective”, Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 34 No. 2, pp. 487-519.
Guo, S., Guo, X., Zhang, X. and Vogel, D. (2018), “Doctor–patient relationship strength’s impact in an online healthcare community”,Information Technology for Development, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 279-300.
Ğüt, H. and Onur Taş, B.K. (2012), “The influence of internet customer reviews on the online sales and prices in hotel industry”, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp. 197-214.
Huang, J.S. and Wang, W.-C. (2014), “Application of the long tail economy to the online news market: examining predictors of market performance”, Journal of Media Economics, Vol. 27 No. 3, pp. 158-176.
Janes, J., Hill, C. and Rolfe, A. (2001), “Ask-an-expert services analysis”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 52 No. 13, pp. 1106-1121.
Jia, W. and Tong, N. (2015), “Diabetes prevention and continuing health-care reform in china”,The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol. 3 No. 11, pp. 840-842.
Jin, X.L., Zhou, Z., Lee, M.K. and Cheung, C.M. (2013), “Why users keep answering questions in online question answering communities: a theoretical and empirical investigation”, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp. 93-104.
Joyce, E. and Kraut, R.E. (2006), “Predicting continued participation in newsgroups”, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 723-747.
Katz, S.J. and Moyer, C.A. (2004), “The emerging role of online communication between patients and their providers”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 19 No. 9, pp. 978-983.
Khusro, S., Alam, A. and Khalid, S. (2017), “Social question and answer sites: the story so far”, Program, Vol. 51 No. 2, pp. 170-192.
Kim, S., Oh, J.S. and Oh, S. (2007), “Best-answer selection criteria in a social Q&A site from the user-oriented relevance perspective”,Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 1-15.
Lai, H.-M. and Chen, T.T. (2014), “Knowledge sharing in interest online communities: a comparison of posters and lurkers”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 35, pp. 295-306.
Lee, K., Lee, B. and Oh, W. (2015), “Thumbs up, sales up? The contingent effect of Facebook likes on sales performance in social commerce”, Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 32 No. 4, pp. 109-143.
Li, J., Zhang, Y., Ma, L. and Liu, X. (2016), “The impact of the internet on health consultation market concentration: an econometric analysis of secondary data”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 18 No. 10.
Li, J., Zhang, S., Wang, W. and Wang, Y. (2017), “Research on the influencing factors of user’s online knowledge consumption behavior”,Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 122, pp. 174-179.
Lin, T.C., Hsu, J.S.C. and Chen, H.C. (2013), “Customer willingness to pay for online music: the role of free mentality”, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 14 No. 4.
Lou, J., Fang, Y., Lim, K.H. and Peng, J.Z. (2013), “Contributing high quantity and quality knowledge to online Q&A communities”,Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 64 No. 2, pp. 356-371.
Lunt, T. and Curran, J. (2010), “‘Are you listening please?’ The advantages of electronic audio feedback compared to written feedback ”, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 35 No. 7, pp. 759-769.
Luo, W. and Chung, Q.B. (2010), “Retailer reputation and online pricing strategy”, Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 50 No. 4, pp. 50-56.
Malik, M.E., Ghafoor, M.M. and Hafiz, K.I. (2012), “Impact of brand image, service quality and price on customer satisfaction in Pakistan telecommunication sector”, International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 3 No. 23.
Matzler, K., Würtele, A. and Renzl, B. (2006), “Dimensions of price satisfaction: a study in the retail banking industry”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp. 216-231.
Mensing, D. (2007), “Online revenue business model has changed little since 1996”, Newspaper Research Journal, Vol. 28 No. 2, pp. 22-37.
Pan, X., Ratchford, B., T. and Shankar, V. (2002), “Can price dispersion in online markets be explained by differences in e-tailer service quality?”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 30 No. 4, pp. 433-445.
Pedraja Iglesias, M. and Jesus Yagüe Guillén, M. (2004), “Perceived quality and price: their impact on the satisfaction of restaurant customers”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 373-379.
Preece, J. (2000), “Online communities: designing usability, supporting sociability”, Industrial Management and Data Systems, Vol. 100 No. 9, pp. 459-460.
Preece, J., Nonnecke, B. and Andrews, D. (2004), “The top five reasons for lurking: improving community experiences for everyone”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 201-223.
Punj, G. (2015), “The relationship between consumer characteristics and willingness to pay for general online content: implications for content providers considering subscription-based business models”, Marketing Letters, Vol. 26 No. 2, pp. 175-186.
Raban, D.R. (2008), “The incentive structure in an online information market”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 59 No. 14, pp. 2284-2295.
Rau, P.-L.P., Gao, Q. and Ding, Y. (2008), “Relationship between the level of intimacy and lurking in online social network services”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 24 No. 6, pp. 2757-2770.
Ren, Y., Harper, F.M., Drenner, S., Terveen, L., Kiesler, S., Riedl, J. and Kraut, R.E. (2012), “Building member attachment in online communities: applying theories of group identity and interpersonal bonds”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 841-864.
Ridings, C.M. and Gefen, D. (2004), “Virtual community attraction: why people hang out online”, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 10 No. 1.
Roberts, J.A., Hann, I.-H. and Slaughter, S.A. (2006), “Understanding the motivations, participation, and performance of open source software developers: a longitudinal study of the apache projects”, Management Science, Vol. 52 No. 7, pp. 984-999.
Ruth, R.D. (2012), “Conversation as a source of satisfaction and continuance in a question-and-answer site”, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 427-437.
Serrano, C.I. and Karahanna, E. (2016), “The compensatory interaction between user capabiities and technology capabilities in influencing task performance: an empirical assessment in telemedicine consultations”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 40 No. 3, pp. 597-621.
Shah, C., Oh, J.S. and Oh, S. (2008), “Exploring characteristics and effects of user participation in online social Q&A sites”,First Monday, Vol. 13 No. 9.
Sherman, L.E., Michikyan, M. and Greenfield, P.M. (2013), “The effects of text, audio, video, and in-person communication on bonding between friends”, Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, Vol. 7 No. 2.
Shuyler, K.S. and Knight, K.M. (2003), “What are patients seeking when they turn to the internet? Qualitative content analysis of questions asked by visitors to an orthopaedics web site”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 5 No. 4.
Song, Y., Jin, M.Z. and Ren, P.Y. (2014), “Empirical study on personal motivation of UGC in Q&A community”,Pakistan Journal of Statistics, Vol. 30 No. 5.
Szulanski, G., Cappetta, R. and Jensen, R.J. (2004), “When and how trustworthiness matters: knowledge transfer and the moderating effect of causal ambiguity”, Organization Science, Vol. 15 No. 5, pp. 600-613.
Wang, S. and Noe, R.A. (2010), “Knowledge sharing: a review and directions for future research”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 115-131.
Wang, J.N., Chiu, Y.L., Yu, H. and Hsu, Y.T. (2017), “Understanding a nonlinear causal relationship between rewards and physicians’ contributions in online health care communities: Longitudinal study”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 19 No. 12.
Wang, C.L., Zhang, Y., Ye, L.R. and Nguyen, D.D. (2005), “Subscription to fee-based online services: what makes consumer pay for online content?”, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 6 No. 4, p. 304.
Wasko, M.M. and Faraj, S. (2005), “Why should i share? Examining social capital and knowledge contribution in electronic networks of practice”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 35-57.
Wolk, A. and Theysohn, S. (2007), “Factors influencing website traffic in the paid content market”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 23 Nos 7/8, pp. 769-796.
Wu, H. and Lu, N. (2018), “Service provision, pricing, and patient satisfaction in online health communities”, International Journal of Medical Informatics, Vol. 110, pp. 77-89.
Wun, Y.T., Lam, T.P., Lam, K.F., Goldberg, D., Li, D.K. and Yip, K.C. (2010), “How do patients choose their doctors for primary care in a free market?”, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 1215-1220.
Xiao, N., Sharman, R., Rao, H.R. and Upadhyaya, S. (2014), “Factors influencing online health information search: an empirical analysis of a national cancer-related survey”,Decision Support Systems, Vol. 57, pp. 417-427.
Xing, X., Tang, F.-F. and Yang, Z. (2004), “Pricing dynamics in the online consumer electronics market”, Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol. 13 No. 6, pp. 429-441.
Yan, Z., Wang, T., Chen, Y. and Zhang, H. (2016), “Knowledge sharing in online health communities: a social exchange theory perspective”, Information and Management, Vol. 53 No. 5, pp. 643-653.
Yang, S., Liu, Y. and Wei, J. (2016), “Social Capital on mobile SNS addiction: a perspective from online and offline channel integrations”, Internet Research, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 982-1000.
Ybarra, M. and Suman, M. (2006), “Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of internet health information”, Health Education Research, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 512-521.
Ye, Q., Law, R., Gu, B. and Chen, W. (2011), “The influence of user-generated content on traveler behavior: an empirical investigation on the effects of e-word-of-mouth to hotel online bookings”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 634-639.
Zhang, C.B., Li, Y.N., Wu, B. and Li, D.J. (2017a), “How wechat can retain users: roles of network externalities, social interaction ties, and perceived values in building continuance intention”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 69, pp. 284-293.
Zhang, D., Zhang, F., Lin, M. and Du, H.S. (2017b), “Knowledge sharing among innovative customers in a virtual innovation community: the roles of psychological capital, material reward and reciprocal relationship”, Online Information Review, Vol. 41 No. 5, pp. 691-709.
Zhang, M., Zhu, M., Liu, X. and Yang, J. (2017c), “Why should i pay for e-books? An empirical study to investigate Chinese readers’ purchase behavioural intention in the mobile era”, The Electronic Library, Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 472-493.
Zhang, X., Liu, S., Chen, X. and Gong, Y. (2017d), “Social capital, motivations, and knowledge sharing intention in health Q&A communities”,Management Decision, Vol. 55 No. 7, pp. 1536-1557.
Zhang, X., Liu, S., Deng, Z. and Chen, X. (2017e), “Knowledge sharing motivations in online health communities: a comparative study of health professionals and normal users”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 75, pp. 797-810.
Zhao, Y., Zhao, Y., Yuan, X. and Zhou, R. (2018), “How knowledge contributor characteristics and reputation affect user payment decision in paid Q&A? An empirical analysis from the perspective of trust theory”,Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 31, pp. 1-11.
Zhou, T. (2018), “Understanding online knowledge community user continuance: a social cognitive theory perspective”, Data Technologies and Applications, Vol. 52 No. 3, pp. 445-458.
Tuotuo Qi, Tianmei Wang, Yanlin Ma and Xinxue Zhou. Published in International Journal of Crowd Science. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode