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Original Research | Open Access

Experience of diagnosis and managements for patients with primary progressive freezing of gait

Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital Jiading Branch, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201812, China
Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214000, Jiangsu, China
Graduate School, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu, China
Department of Geriatrics, Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210046, Jiangsu, China

1 These authors contributed equally to this work.

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The goal of this research was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with primary progressive freezing of gait (PPFOG).

Patients and methods

This retrospective study enrolled 8 PPFOG patients and 10 age-matched Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait (PDFOG) patients. All patients underwent structured forms to document clinical manifestations and neuropsychological evaluations.


PPFOG patients demonstrated later onset age than PDFOG patients (70.00 ± 9.97 years versus 53.30 ± 5.40 years, respectively; P < 0.05). Besides FOG (100%), the most prevalent concomitant symptoms of PPFOG patients were falling (n = 6, 75%), and fatigue (n = 5, 62.5%). More PPFOG patients had cerebrovascular risk factors and mild brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, which were constant with the manifestations of "cerebral small vessel disease" (P = 0.0001).


According to this study, the majority of PPFOG patients were linked with cerebrovascular disease risk factors and mild brain MRI abnormalities. More research on larger populations is needed to better understand the potential mechanisms underlying the link between PPFOG and cerebral small vessel disease.

Journal of Neurorestoratology
Article number: 100039
Cite this article:
Zhang L-L, Zhao Y-J, Zhang L, et al. Experience of diagnosis and managements for patients with primary progressive freezing of gait. Journal of Neurorestoratology, 2023, 11(1): 100039.






Web of Science



Received: 11 August 2022
Revised: 05 November 2022
Accepted: 27 November 2022
Published: 09 December 2022
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Tsinghua University Press.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (