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Research Article | Open Access

Nanostructured lubricant additives for titanium alloy: Lubrication by the solid–liquid interface with Coulomb repulsion

Linlin DUAN1,2Dan JIA1,2Jian LI1,2Jianfang LIU3Haitao DUAN1,2( )
State Key Laboratory of Special Surface Protection Materials and Application Technology, Wuhan Research Institute of Materials Protection, Wuhan 430030, China
Hubei Longzhong Laboratory, Xiangyang 441000, China
College of Life Science and Technology, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430030, China
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Graphical Abstract


In this work, the advantage of Coulomb repulsion in the intermolecular forces experienced by molecules on the solid–liquid nanosized contact interface is taken, and the superior friction-reducing property of Cu3(PO4)2·3H2O (CuP) oil-based additives has been confirmed for titanium alloy. Three-dimensional (3D) CuP nanoflowers (CuP-Fs) with a strong capillary absorption effect are prepared to achieve the homogeneous mixing of solid CuP and lubricating oil. Lubrication by CuP-Fs additives for titanium alloy, friction coefficient (COF) can be reduced by 73.68%, and wear rate (WR) reduced by 99.69%. It is demonstrated that the extraordinary friction-reducing property is due to the repulsive solid–liquid interface with low viscous shear force originating from Coulomb repulsion between polar water molecules in CuP and non-polar oil molecules. However, any steric hindrance or connection between this repulsive solid–liquid interface will trigger the adhesion and increase the viscous shear force, for example, dispersant, hydrogen bondings, and shaky adsorbed water molecules. Besides, the lamellar thickness of CuP and the molecular size of lubricant both have a great influence on tribological properties. Here the lubrication mechanism based on interface Coulomb repulsion is proposed that may help broaden the scope of the exploration in low-friction nanomaterial design and new lubricant systems.

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Pages 1564-1579
Cite this article:
DUAN L, JIA D, LI J, et al. Nanostructured lubricant additives for titanium alloy: Lubrication by the solid–liquid interface with Coulomb repulsion. Friction, 2024, 12(7): 1564-1579.








Web of Science






Received: 12 February 2023
Revised: 08 May 2023
Accepted: 27 September 2023
Published: 12 March 2024
© The author(s) 2023.

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