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Research Article | Open Access

Prediction model of volume average diameter and analysis of atomization characteristics in electrostatic atomization minimum quantity lubrication

Dongzhou JIA1,2Changhe LI1( )Jiahao LIU2Yanbin ZHANG3( )Min YANG1Teng GAO1Zafar SAID4Shubham SHARMA5
School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266520, China
College of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001, China
State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 999077, China
College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, United Arab Emirates
Mechanical Engineering Department, University Center for Research and Development, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab 144603, India
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Graphical Abstract


Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) is a relatively efficient and clean alternative to flooding workpiece machining. Electrostatic atomization has the merits of small droplet diameter, high uniformity of droplet size, and strong coating, hence its superiority to pneumatic atomization. However, as the current research hotspot, the influence of jet parameters and electrical parameters on the average diameter of droplets is not clear. First, by observing the shape of the liquid film at the nozzle outlet, the influence law of air pressure and voltage on liquid film thickness (h) and transverse and longitudinal fluctuations are determined. Then, the mathematical model of charged droplet volume average diameter (VAD) is constructed based on three dimensions of the liquid film, namely its thickness, transverse wavelength (λh), and longitudinal wavelength (λz). The model results under different working conditions are obtained by numerical simulation. Comparisons of the model results with the experimental VAD of the droplet confirm the error of the mathematical model to be less than 10%. The droplet diameter distribution span value Rosin–Rammler distribution span (R.S) and percentage concentrations of PM10 (particle size of less than 10 μm)/PM2.5 (particle size of less than 2.5 μm) under different working conditions are further analyzed. The results show that electrostatic atomization not only reduces the diameter distribution span of atomized droplets but also significantly inhibits the formation of PM10 and PM2.5 fine-suspension droplets. When the air pressure is 0.3 MPa, and the voltage is 40 kV, the percentage concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 can be reduced by 80.72% and 92.05%, respectively, compared with that under the pure pneumatic atomization condition at 0.3 MPa.


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Pages 2107-2131
Cite this article:
JIA D, LI C, LIU J, et al. Prediction model of volume average diameter and analysis of atomization characteristics in electrostatic atomization minimum quantity lubrication. Friction, 2023, 11(11): 2107-2131.








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Received: 16 July 2021
Revised: 05 November 2021
Accepted: 20 December 2022
Published: 18 February 2023
© The author(s) 2022.

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