AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
Home Friction Article
View PDF
Collect
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Review Article | Open Access

Recent advances in wheel–rail RCF and wear testing

Sundar SHRESTHA1,2Maksym SPIRYAGIN1,2Esteban BERNAL1,2( )Qing WU1,2Colin COLE1,2
Centre for Railway Engineering, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton 4701, Australia
Australasian Centre for Rail Innovation, Canberra 2601, Australia
Show Author Information

Abstract

The wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) testing approaches for wheels and rails have been reviewed and evaluated in this study. The study points out the advantages and limitations of the existing approaches. The broad analysis revealed that scaled laboratory-based wear testing is widely applied. However, it is necessary to predetermine the input parameters and observing parameters for scaled wear testing for three reasons: first, to emulate the real-world scenarios as closely as possible; second, to postprocess the results received from the scaled testing and transfer them into real practice at full scale; third, to present the results in a legible/appropriate format. Therefore, most of the important parameters required for wear testing have been discussed with fundamental and systematic explanations provided. Additionally, the transition of the parameters from the real-world into the test domain is explained. This study also elaborates on the challenges of the RCF and wear testing processes and concludes by providing major considerations toward successful testing.

References

[1]
Kragelsky I V, Dobychin M N, Kombalov V S. Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods. Elsevier, 1982.
[2]
Varenberg M. Towards a unified classification of wear. Friction 1(4): 333–340 (2013)
[3]
Lontin K, Khan M. Interdependence of friction, wear, and noise: A review. Friction 9(6): 1319–1345 (2021)
[4]
Wu Q, Spiryagin M, Sun Y, Cole C. Parallel co-simulation of locomotive wheel wear and rolling contact fatigue in a heavy haul train operational environment. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 235(2): 166–178 (2021)
[5]
Pearce T G, Sherratt N D. Prediction of wheel profile wear. Wear 144(1–2): 343–351 (1991)
[6]
Bolton P J, Clayton P. Rolling–sliding wear damage in rail and tyre steels. Wear 93(2): 145–165 (1984)
[7]
Jendel T. Prediction of wheel profile wear—Comparisons with field measurements. Wear 253(1–2): 89–99 (2002)
[8]
Enblom R. On simulation of uniform wear and profile evolution in the wheel-rail contact. DiVA - Academic Archive On-line (2006)
[9]
Braghin F, Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce R S, Bruni S. A mathematical model to predict railway wheel profile evolution due to wear. Wear 261(11–12): 1253–1264 (2006)
[10]
Lewis R, Olofsson U. Mapping rail wear regimes and transitions. Wear 257(7–8): 721–729 (2004)
[11]
Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce R S, Olofsson U, Pombo J, Ambrosio J, Pereira M, Ariaudo C, Kuka N. Mapping railway wheel material wear mechanisms and transitions. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 224: 125–137 (2010)
[12]
Bevan A, Molyneux-Berry P, Eickhoff B, Burstow M. Development and validation of a wheel wear and rolling contact fatigue damage model. Wear 307(1–2): 100–111 (2013)
[13]
Lewis R, Olofsson U. Basic tribology of the wheel-rail contact. In Wheel-Rail Interface Handbook. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009: 34–57
DOI
[14]
Huang Y B, Shi L B, Zhao X J, Cai Z B, Liu Q Y, Wang W J. On the formation and damage mechanism of rolling contact fatigue surface cracks of wheel/rail under the dry condition. Wear 400–401: 62–73 (2018)
[15]
Cannon D F, Edel K O, Grassie S L, Sawley K. Rail defects: An overview. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 26(10): 865–886 (2003)
[16]
Ekberg A. Rolling contact fatigue of railway wheels—A parametric study. Wear 211(2): 280–288 (1997)
[17]
Ekberg A, Åkesson B, Kabo E. Wheel/rail rolling contact fatigue–Probe, predict, prevent. Wear 314(1–2): 2–12 (2014)
[18]
Grassie S L. Rolling contact fatigue on the British railway system: Treatment. Wear 258(7–8): 1310–1318 (2005)
[19]
Magel E, Kalousek J. Identifying and interpreting railway wheel defects. In Proceedings of International Heavy Haul Association Conference on Freight Car Trucks/Bogies, Montreal, Canada, 996.
[20]
Soleimani H, Moavenian M. Tribological aspects of wheel-rail contact: A review of wear mechanisms and effective factors on rolling contact fatigue. Urban Rail Transit 3(4): 227–237 (2017)
[21]
Ma L, He C G, Zhao X J, Guo J, Zhu Y, Wang W J, Liu Q Y, Jin X S. Study on wear and rolling contact fatigue behaviors of wheel/rail materials under different slip ratio conditions. Wear 366–367: 13–26 (2016)
[22]
Six K, Mihalj T, Trummer G, Marte C, Krishna V V, Hossein-Nia S, Stichel S. Assessment of running gear performance in relation to rolling contact fatigue of wheels and rails based on stochastic simulations. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 234(4): 405–416 (2020)
[23]
Ekberg A, Kabo E, Andersson H. An engineering model for prediction of rolling contact fatigue of railway wheels. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 25(10): 899–909 (2002)
[24]
Burstow M C. Whole life rail model application and development for RSSB (T115)—Continued development of an RCF damage parameter. London: Rail Standards and Safety Board, 2004.
[25]
Johnson K L. Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
[26]
Krabbenhøft K, Lyamin A V, Sloan S W. Bounds to shakedown loads for a class of deviatoric plasticity models. Comput Mech 39(6): 879–888 (2007)
[27]
Bernal E, Spiryagin M, Vollebregt E, Oldknow K, Stichel S, Shrestha S, Ahmad S, Wu Q, Sun Y, Cole C. Prediction of rail surface damage in locomotive traction operations using laboratory-field measured and calibrated data. Eng Fail Anal 135: 106165 (2022)
[28]
Hasan N. Shakedown limits and uses in railroad engineering. J Mater Civ Eng 31(11): 04019282 (2019)
[29]
Vollebregt E, Six K, Polach O. Challenges and progress in the understanding and modelling of the wheel-rail creep forces. Veh Syst Dyn 59(7): 1026–1068 (2021)
[30]
Liu B B, Bruni S. Comparison of wheel-rail contact models in the context of multibody system simulation: Hertzian versus non-Hertzian. Veh Syst Dyn 60(3): 1076–1096 (2022)
[31]
Alwahdi F. Wear and rolling contact fatigue of ductile materials. Ph.D. Thesis. The University of Sheffield, 2004
[32]
Gallardo Hernandez E A. Wheel and rail contact simulation using a twin disc tester. Ph.D. thesis. University of Sheffield, 2009.
[33]
Turnia J, Sinclair J, Perez J, A review of wheel wear and rolling contact fatigue. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 221: 271–289 (2007)
[34]
Kapoor A, Fletcher D I, Franklin F J. The role of wear in enhancing rail life. Tribol Ser 41: 331–340 (2003)
[35]
Meng Y G, Xu J, Jin Z M, Prakash B, Hu Y Z. A review of recent advances in tribology. Friction 8(2): 221–300 (2020)
[36]
Papaelias M P, Roberts C, Davis C L. A review on non-destructive evaluation of rails: State-of-the-art and future development. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 222: 367–384 (2008)
[37]
Innotrack. D4.4.1 – Rail Inspection Technologies, INNOTRACK Project Number TIP5-CT-2006-031415, 2008. http://www.innotrack.net/IMG/pdf/d441.pdf.
[38]
Clark R. Rail flaw detection: Overview and needs for future developments. NDT E Int 37(2): 111–118 (2004)
[39]
Bezemer L, Weel T, Flach G, Hanspach G, Thomas H-M. Device for guiding eddy current sensors along railway tracks for a non destructive inspection of the rail surface. EP 1 547 898 B1, 2006.
[40]
Pohl R, Erhard A, Montag H J, Thomas H M, Wüstenberg H. NDT techniques for railroad wheel and gauge corner inspection. NDT E Int 37(2): 89–94 (2004)
[41]
Thomas H M, Heckel T, Hanspach G. Advantage of a combined ultrasonic and eddy current examination for railway inspection trains. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 49(6): 341–344 (2007)
[42]
Moles M. Advances in phased array ultrasonic technology applications. Olympus NDT Adv Pract NDT Ser 491 (2007) http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Advances+in+Phased+Array+Ultrasonic+Technology+Applications#3.
[43]
Utrata D. Exploring enhanced rail flaw detection using ultrasonic phased array inspection. AIP Conf Proc 615(1): 1813–1818 (2002)
[44]
Wooh S C, Wang J Y. Nondestructive characterization of defects using a novel hybrid ultrasonic array sensor. NDT E Int 35(3): 155–163 (2002)
[45]
Alaix R. High speed rail testing with phased array probes. In 7th World Congr Railw Res, Montreal, Canada, 2006.
[46]
Garcia G, Zhang J. Application of ultrasonic phased arrays for rail flaw inspection. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, U.S., 2006.
[47]
Coperet P. FAAST—Fast Automated Angle Scan Technique. In ECNDT 2006 Conf, 2006: 1–9.
[48]
Bond L J. Laser Ultrasonics, Techniques and Applications. CRC Press, 1991.
DOI
[49]
Nielsen S A, Bardenshtein A L, Thommesen A, Stenum B. Automatic laser ultrasonics for rail inspection. In 16th World Conf Non-Destructive Test, 2004.
[50]
Kenderian S, Cerniglia D, Djordjevic B B, Garcia G. Laser-air hybrid ultrasonic technique for dynamic railroad inspection applications. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 47(6): 336–340 (2005)
[51]
Kenderian S, Djordjevic B B, Cerniglia D, Garcia G. Dynamic railroad inspection using the laser-air hybrid ultrasonic technique. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 48(6): 336–341 (2006)
[52]
Lanza di Scalea F, Rizzo P, Coccia S, Bartoli I, Fateh M, Viola E, Pascale G. Non-contact ultrasonic inspection of rails and signal processing for automatic defect detection and classification. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 47(6): 346–353 (2005)
[53]
Montinaro N, Epasto G, Cerniglia D, Guglielmino E. Laser ultrasonics inspection for defect evaluation on train wheel. NDT E Int 107: 102145 (2019)
[54]
Cavuto A, Martarelli M, Pandarese G, Revel G M, Tomasini E P. Train wheel diagnostics by laser ultrasonics. Measurement 80: 99–107 (2016)
[55]
Ling en hong, Abdul Rahim R H. A review on ultrasonic guided wave technology. Aust J Mech Eng 18(1): 32–44 (2020)
[56]
Wilcox P, Evans M, Pavlakovic B, Alleyne D, Vine K, Cawley P, Lowe M. Guided wave testing of rail. Insight 45(6): 413–420 (2003)
[57]
Di Scalea F L, Bartoli I, Rizzo P, Fateh M. High-speed defect detection in rails by noncontact guided ultrasonic testing. Transportation Research Record 1916(1): 66–77 (2005)
[58]
Loveday P W. Guided wave inspection and monitoring of railway track. J Nondestruct Eval 31(4): 303–309 (2012)
[59]
Coccia S, Bartoli I, Salamone S, Phillips R, di Scalea F L, Fateh M, Carr G. Noncontact ultrasonic guided wave detection of rail defects. Transportation Research Record 2117(1): 77–84 (2009)
[60]
Campos-Castellanos C, Gharaibeh Y, Mudge P, Kappatos V. The application of long range ultrasonic testing (LRUT) for examination of hard to access areas on railway tracks. In 5th IET Conf Railw Cond Monit Non Destr Test RCM, 2011.
[61]
Wang S J, Chen X Y, Jiang T, Kang L. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves inspection of rail base. In 2014 IEEE Far East Forum on Nondestructive Evaluation/Testing, Chengdu, China, 2014.
[62]
Coccia S, Bartoli I, Marzani A, Lanza di Scalea F, Salamone S, Fateh M. Numerical and experimental study of guided waves for detection of defects in the rail head. NDT E Int 44(1): 93–100 (2011)
[63]
Teidj S, Khamlichi A, Driouach A. Generating guided waves for detection of transverse type-defects in rails. Appl Mech Mater 772: 355–358 (2015)
[64]
Gharaibeh Y, Sanderson R, Mudge P, Ennaceur C, Balachandran W. Investigation of the behaviour of selected ultrasonic guided wave modes to inspect rails for long-range testing and monitoring. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 225(3): 311–324 (2011)
[65]
Pathak M, Alahakoon S, Spiryagin M, Cole C. Rail foot flaw detection based on a laser induced ultrasonic guided wave method. Measurement 148: 106922 (2019)
[66]
Rizzo P, Cammarata M, Bartoli I, di Scalea F L, Salamone S, Coccia S, Phillips R. Ultrasonic guided waves-based monitoring of rail head: Laboratory and field tests. Adv Civ Eng 2010: 1–13 (2010)
[67]
Mariani S, Nguyen T V, Zhu X, Sternini S, Lanza di Scalea F, Fateh M, Wilson R. Non-contact ultrasonic guided wave inspection of rails: Next generation approach. In 2016 Joint Rail Conference,. Columbia, South Carolina, USA, 2016.
[68]
Mariani S, Nguyen T, Phillips R R, Kijanka P, Lanza di Scalea F, Staszewski W J, Fateh M, Carr G. Noncontact ultrasonic guided wave inspection of rails. Struct Health Monit 12(5–6): 539–548 (2013)
[69]
Rose J L, Lee C M, Hay T R, Cho Y, Park I K. Rail inspection with guided waves. In J Acoust. Soc. Am., Aukland, New Zealand, 2006: 733–740.
[70]
Lee C M, Rose J L, Cho Y. A guided wave approach to defect detection under shelling in rail. NDT E Int 42(3): 174–180 (2009)
[71]
Rose J L, Avioli M J, Mudge P, Sanderson R. Guided wave inspection potential of defects in rail. NDT E Int 37(2): 153–161 (2004)
[72]
Lee C M, Rose J L, Luo W, Cho Y H. A computational tool for defect analysis in rail with ultrasonic guided waves. Key Eng Mater 321–323: 784–787 (2006)
[73]
Maxfield B. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers, Second Edition. Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2003.
DOI
[74]
Huang S L, Wang S, Li W B, Wang Q. Electromagnetic acoustic transducer. In Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Guided Waves. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2016: 1–42
DOI
[75]
Rowshandel H. The development of an autonomous robotic inspection system to detect and characterise rolling contact fatigue cracks in railway track, The University of Birmingham, 2014. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/4821/.
[76]
Dixon S, Edwards R S, Jian X. Inspection of rail track head surfaces using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). Insight 46(6): 326–330 (2004)
[77]
Chahbaz A, Brassard M, Pelletier A. Mobile inspection system for rail integrity assessment. In 15th World Conf. NDT, Rome, Italy, 2013: 1–6.
[78]
Zhang K, Yi P, Li Y, Hui B, Zhang X. A new method to evaluate surface defects with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer. Sensors (Basel) 15(7): 17420–17432 (2015)
[79]
Yi Z, Wang K C, Kang L, Zhai G F, Wang S J. Rail flaw detection system based on electromagnetic acoustic technique. In 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, Taichung, Taiwan, China, 2010: 211–215
[80]
Li Y Q, Li C, Su R L, Zhai G F, Wang K C. Unidirectional line-focusing shear vertical wave EMATs used for rail base center flaw detection. In 2016 IEEE Far East NDT New Technology & Application Forum (FENDT), Nanchang, China, 2016: 99–102
[81]
Vishesh S, Srinath M, Sreeram S, Jayanth P, Samarth Bharadwaj D D, Venkatachalapathi S S. Advanced monitoring of rail cracks using LASER-EMAT system. IJARCCE 5(12): 413–416 (2016)
[82]
Petcher P A, Potter M D G, Dixon S. A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design for operation on rail. NDT E Int 65: 1–7 (2014)
[83]
Lu C, Men P, Li L X. An experimental study of EMAT ultrasonic surface waves modes in railhead. Int J Appl Electromagn Mech 33(3–4): 1127–1133 (2010)
[84]
Santos R, Jiménez J A, Boyero C, Romero A, García V, Syed A, Hernández F, López B. New EMAT solutions for the railway industry. In 12th ECNDT Conf, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2018.
[85]
Bowler N. Eddy-Current Nondestructive Evaluation. Springer New York, 2019.
DOI
[86]
Rajamäki J, Vippola M, Nurmikolu A, Viitala T. Limitations of eddy current inspection in railway rail evaluation. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 232(1): 121–129 (2018)
[87]
Szugs T, Krüger A, Jansen G, Beltman B, Gao S, Mühmel H, Ahlbrink R. Combination of ultrasonic and eddy current testing with imaging for characterization of rolling contact fatigue. In 19th World Conf. Non-Destructive Test., Munich, Germany, 2016: 1–8.
[88]
Rockstroh B, Kappes W, Walte F, Kröning M, Bessert S, Seitz R, Hintze H, Pieper W, Schümann N, Heilmann P. Ultrasonic and eddy-current inspection of rail wheels and wheel set axles. In 17th World Conf. Nondestruct. Test., Shanghai, China, 2008: 25–28.
[89]
Gao S, Szugs T, Inspection E, Ahlbrink R. Use of combined railway inspection data sources for characterization of rolling contact fatigue. In 12th ECNDT Conf., 2018.
[90]
Thomas H M, Dey A, Heyder R. Eddy Current test method for early detection of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rails. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 52(7): 361–365 (2010)
[91]
Wilson J, Tian G Y, Mukriz I, Almond D. PEC thermography for imaging multiple cracks from rolling contact fatigue. NDT E Int 44(6): 505–512 (2011)
[92]
Peng J P, Tian G Y, Wang L, Zhang Y, Li K J, Gao X R. Investigation into eddy current pulsed thermography for rolling contact fatigue detection and characterization. NDT E Int 74: 72–80 (2015)
[93]
Feng L F, Peng J P, Zhang K, Bai J, Gao X R. Research on eddy current pulsed thermography for Squats in railway. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography. QIRT Council, 2018: 586–593.
[94]
Zhu J Z, Wu J B, Tian G Y, Gao Y I. Detection and reconstruction of rolling contact fatigue cracks using eddy current pulsed thermography. In 2018 IEEE Far East NDT New Technology & Application Forum (FENDT), Xiamen, China, 2018.
[95]
Zhu J Z, Withers P J, Wu J B, Liu F, Yi Q J, Wang Z J, Tian G Y. Characterization of rolling contact fatigue cracks in rails by eddy current pulsed thermography. IEEE Trans Ind Inform 17(4): 2307–2315 (2021)
[96]
Song Z L, Yamada T, Shitara H, Takemura Y. Detection of damage and crack in railhead by using eddy current testing. J Electromagn Anal Appl 3(12): 546–550 (2011)
[97]
Vaibhav T, Balasubramaniam K, Thomas R, Chandra Bose A. (2016) Eddy Current thermography for rail inspection. In Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography. QIRT Council, 2016: 862–869.
[98]
Peng J P, Tian G Y, Wang L, Gao X R, Zhang Y, Wang Z Y. (2014) Rolling contact fatigue detection using eddy current pulsed thermography. In 2014 IEEE Far East Forum on Nondestructive Evaluation/Testing, Chengdu, China, 2014.
[99]
Zhang K, Peng J P, Yang K, Gao X R, Zhang Y, Peng C Y, Tian G Y. Research on eddy current pulsed thermography for rolling contact fatigue crack detection and quantification in wheel tread. In 2016 18th International Wheelset Congress (IWC), Chengdu, China, 2016.
[100]
Chenariyan Nakhaee M, Hiemstra D, Stoelinga M, van Noort M. The recent applications of machine learning in rail track maintenance: A Survey. In Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (Including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes Bioinformatics), 2019: 91–105.
[101]
Santur Y, Karaköse M, Akin E. A new rail inspection method based on deep learning using laser cameras. In 2017 International Artificial Intelligence and Data Processing Symposium (IDAP), Malatya, Turkey. IEEE, 2017: 1–6
[102]
Li Q Y, Ren S W. A real-time visual inspection system for discrete surface defects of rail heads. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 61(8): 2189–2199 (2012)
[103]
Min Y Z, Xiao B Y, Dang J W, Yue B, Cheng T D. Real time detection system for rail surface defects based on machine vision. EURASIP J Image Video Process 2018(1): 1–11 (2018)
[104]
Yuan H, Chen H, Liu S W, Lin J, Luo X. A deep convolutional neural network for detection of rail surface defect. In 2019 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Hanoi, Vietnam, 2019.
[105]
Bodini I, Petrogalli C, Mazzù A, Pasinetti S, Kato T, Makino T. A vision-based approach for rolling contact fatigue evaluation in twin-disc tests on a railway wheel steel. Tribol Mater Surf Interfaces 15(2): 92–101 (2021)
[106]
Liu B L, Brigham J C, Jun H, Yuan X C, Hu H L. Roll contact fatigue defect recognition using computer vision and deep convolutional neural networks with transfer learning. Eng Res Express 1(2): 025018 (2019)
[107]
Raza Rizvi A, Rauf Khan P, Ahmad S. Crack detection in railway track using image processing. Int J Adv Res Ideas Innov Technol 3: 489–496 (2017)
[108]
Bodini I, Sansoni G, Lancini M, Pasinetti S, Docchio F. Feasibility study of a vision system for on-line monitoring of rolling contact fatigue tests. J Phys: Conf Ser 778: 012007 (2017)
[109]
Li J Y, Liang J K, Chen G B, Yang Y. Research on key control technology of intelligent rolling contact fatigue test facility. J Control Sci Eng 2020: 1–11 (2020)
[110]
M. Lugg, D. Topp, Recent Developments and Applications of the ACFM Inspection Method and ACSM Stress Measurement Method, Ecndt. (2006) 1–14.
[111]
Topp D, Smith M. Application of the ACFM inspection method to rail and rail vehicles. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 47(6): 354–357 (2005)
[112]
Howitt M. Bombardier brings ACFM into the rail industry. Insight Non-Destructive Test Con Monit 44: 379–382 (2002)
[113]
Shen J. Responses of alternating current field measurements (ACFM) to rolling contact fatigue cracks in railway rails. Ph.D. Thesis. Coventry (U.K.): University of Warwick, 2017.
[114]
Shen J, Zhou L, Warnett J, Williams M. The influence of rcf crack propagation angle and crack shape on the ACFM signal. In 19th World Conf. Non Destr. Test., 2016: 1–9.
[115]
Transalley. The rail industry in the region. https://www.transalley.com/en/overview/the-rail-industryin-the-region, 2015.
[116]
Papaelias M P, Lugg M C, Roberts C, Davis C L. High-speed inspection of rails using ACFM techniques. NDT E Int 42(4): 328–335 (2009)
[117]
Papaelias M P, Lugg M. Detection and evaluation of rail surface defects using alternating current field measurement techniques. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 226(5): 530–541 (2012)
[118]
Ph Papaelias M, Roberts C, Davis C L, Blakeley B, Lugg M. Further developments in high-speed detection of rail rolling contact fatigue using ACFM techniques. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 52(7): 358–360 (2010)
[119]
Ph Papaelias M, Roberts C, Davis C L, Lugg M, Smith M. Detection and quantification of rail contact fatigue cracks in rails using ACFM technology. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 50(7): 364–368 (2008)
[120]
Nicholson G L, Rowshandel H, Hao X J, Davis C L. Measurement and modelling of ACFM response to multiple RCF cracks in rail and wheels. Ironmak Steelmak 40(2): 87–91 (2013)
[121]
Nicholson G L, Kostryzhev A G, Hao X J, Davis C L. Modelling and experimental measurements of idealised and light-moderate RCF cracks in rails using an ACFM sensor. NDT E Int 44(5): 427–437 (2011)
[122]
Nicholson G L, Davis C L. Modelling of the response of an ACFM sensor to rail and rail wheel RCF cracks. NDT E Int 46: 107–114 (2012)
[123]
Nicholson G, Rowshandel H, Papaelias M, Davis C, Roberts C. Sizing and tomography of rolling contact fatigue cracks in rails using NDT technology-potential for high speed application. In 9th World Conf. Railw. Res., Lille, France, 2011.
[124]
Rowshandel H, Nicholson G L, Davis C L, Roberts C. A robotic approach for NDT of RCF cracks in rails using an ACFM sensor. Insight 53(7): 368–376 (2011)
[125]
Rowshandel H, Papaelias M, Roberts C, Davis C. Development of autonomous ACFM rail inspection techniques. Insight Non Destr Test Cond Monit 53(2): 85–89 (2011)
[126]
Kumar S, Prasanna Rao D L. Wheel-rail contact wear, work, and lateral force for zero angle of attack—A laboratory study. J Dyn Syst Meas Control 106(4): 319–326 (1984)
[127]
Robles Hernández F C, Demas N G, Gonzales K, Polycarpou A A. Correlation between laboratory ball-on-disk and full-scale rail performance tests. Wear 270(7–8): 479–491 (2011)
[128]
Conshohocken W. Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus. ASTM G99-17.
[129]
Sundh J, Olofsson U, Sundvall K. Seizure and wear rate testing of wheel-rail contacts under lubricated conditions using pin-on-disc methodology. Wear 265(9–10): 1425–1430 (2008)
[130]
Lyu Y Z, Zhu Y, Olofsson U. Wear between wheel and rail: A pin-on-disc study of environmental conditions and iron oxides. Wear 328–329: 277–285 (2015)
[131]
Prates Ferreira de Almeida L, Entringer Falqueto L, Goldenstein H, Cesar Bozzi A, Scandian C. Study of sliding wear of the wheel flange-rail gauge corner contact conditions: Comparative between cast and forged steel wheel materials. Wear 432–433: 102894 (2019)
[132]
Faccoli M, Petrogalli C, Ghidini A. A pin-on-disc study on the wear behaviour of two high-performance railway wheel steels. Tribol Lett 65(4): 1–7 (2017)
[133]
Lee K M, Polycarpou A A. Wear of conventional pearlitic and improved bainitic rail steels. Wear 259(1–6): 391–399 (2005)
[134]
Mezrin A M. Determining local wear equation based on friction and wear testing using a pin-on-disk scheme. J Frict Wear 30(4): 242–245 (2009)
[135]
Zhu Y, Sundh J, Olofsson U. A tribological view of wheel-rail wear maps. Int J Railw Tech 2(3): 79–91 (2013)
[136]
Krause H, Poll G. Wear of wheel-rail surfaces. Wear 113(1): 103–122 (1986)
[137]
Zhou L, Wang W J, Hu Y, Marconi S, Meli E, Ding H H, Liu Q Y, Guo J, Rindi A. Study on the wear and damage behaviors of hypereutectoid rail steel in low temperature environment. Wear 456–457: 203365 (2020)
[138]
Wang W J, Zhong W, Guo J, Liu Q Y, Zhu M H, Zhou Z R. Investigation on rolling contact fatigue and wear properties of railway rails. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J J Eng Tribol 223(7): 1033–1039 (2009)
[139]
Deters L, Proksch M. Friction and wear testing of rail and wheel material. Wear 258(7–8): 981–991 (2005)
[140]
Wang W J, Lewis R, Yang B, Guo L C, Liu Q Y, Zhu M H. Wear and damage transitions of wheel and rail materials under various contact conditions. Wear 362–363: 146–152 (2016)
[141]
Garnham J E, Beynon J H. Dry rolling-sliding wear of bainitic and pearlitic steels. Wear 157(1): 81–109 (1992)
[142]
Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce R S. Wear mechanisms and transitions in railway wheel steels. Proc Inst Mech Eng J J Eng Tribol 218: 467–478 (2004)
[143]
Hasan S M, Chakrabarti D, Singh S B. Dry rolling/sliding wear behaviour of pearlitic rail and newly developed carbide-free bainitic rail steels. Wear 408–409: 151–159 (2018)
[144]
Mazzù A, Solazzi L, Lancini M, Petrogalli C, Ghidini A, Faccoli M. An experimental procedure for surface damage assessment in railway wheel and rail steels. Wear 342–343: 22–32 (2015)
[145]
Santa J F, Cuervo P, Christoforou P, Harmon M, Beagles A, Toro A, Lewis R. Twin disc assessment of wear regime transitions and rolling contact fatigue in R400HT–E8 pairs. Wear 432–433: 102916 (2019)
[146]
Donzella G, Faccoli M, Mazzù A, Petrogalli C, Roberti R. Progressive damage assessment in the near-surface layer of railway wheel-rail couple under cyclic contact. Wear 271(1–2): 408–416 (2011)
[147]
Bosso N, Zampieri N. Experimental and numerial simulation of wheel-rail adhesion and wear using a scaled roller rig and a real-time contact code. Shock Vib 2014: 1–14 (2014)
[148]
Jin Y, Ishida M, Namura A. Experimental simulation and prediction of wear of wheel flange and rail gauge corner. Wear 271(1–2): 259–267 (2011)
[149]
Shebani A, Iwnicki S. Prediction of wheel and rail wear under different contact conditions using artificial neural networks. Wear 406–407: 173–184 (2018)
[150]
Marte C, Six K, Trummer G, Dietmaier P, Kienberger A, Stock R, Fischmeister E, Oberhauser A, Rosenberger M. Application of a new wheel-rail contact model to wear simulations—Validation with wear measurements. In Proc. IAVSD2011 - 22nd Int Symp Dyn Veh Roads Tracks, 2011: 1–6.
[151]
Cantini S, Cervello S. The competitive role of wear and RCF: Full scale experimental assessment of artificial and natural defects in railway wheel treads. Wear 366–367: 325–337 (2016)
[152]
McEwen I J, Harvey R F. Full-scale wheel-on-rail wear testing: comparisons with service wear and a developing theoretical predictive method. Lubr Eng 41: 80–88 (1985)
[153]
Stock R, Pippan R. RCF and wear in theory and practice—The influence of rail grade on wear and RCF. Wear 271(1–2): 125–133 (2011)
[154]
Eadie D T, Elvidge D, Oldknow K, Stock R, Pointner P, Kalousek J, Klauser P. The effects of top of rail friction modifier on wear and rolling contact fatigue: Full-scale rail–wheel test rig evaluation, analysis and modelling. Wear 265(9–10): 1222–1230 (2008)
[155]
Olofsson U, Telliskivi T. Wear, plastic deformation and friction of two rail steels—A full-scale test and a laboratory study. Wear 254(1–2): 80–93 (2003)
[156]
Olofsson U, Nilsson R. Surface cracks and wear of rail: A full-scale test on a commuter train track. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 216(4): 249–264 (2002)
[157]
Steele R K. Observations of in-service wear of railroad wheels and rails under conditions of widely varying lubrication. S L E Trans 25(3): 400–409 (1982)
[158]
Walia M S, Vernersson T, Lundén R, Blennow F, Meinel M. Temperatures and wear at railway tread braking: Field experiments and simulations. Wear 440–441: 203086 (2019)
[159]
Auciello J, Ignesti M, Malvezzi M, Meli E, Rindi A. Development and validation of a wear model for the analysis of the wheel profile evolution in railway vehicles. Veh Syst Dyn 50(11): 1707–1734 (2012)
[160]
Bernal E, Spiryagin M, Cole C. Wheel flat analogue fault detector verification study under dynamic testing conditions using a scaled bogie test rig. Int J Rail Transp 10(2): 177–194 (2022)
[161]
Bosso N, Allen P D, Zampieri N. Scale testing theory and approaches. In Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics. CRC Press, 2019: 825–867
DOI
[162]
Allen P D, Zhang W H, Liang Y R, Zeng J, Jung H, Meli E, Ridolfi A, Rindi A, Heller M, Koch J. Roller rigs. In Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics. CRC Press, 2019: 761–823
DOI
[163]
Fletcher D I, Franklin F J, Kapoor A. Rail surface fatigue and wear. In Wheel-Rail Interface Handbook. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009: 280–310
[164]
Lewis R, Magel E, Wang W J, Olofsson U, Lewis S, Slatter T, Beagles A. Towards a standard approach for the wear testing of wheel and rail materials. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 231(7): 760–774 (2017)
[165]
Buckley-Johnstone L, Harmon M, Lewis R, Hardwick C, Stock R. A comparison of friction modifier performance using two laboratory test scales. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 233: 201–210 (2019)
[166]
Ignesti M, Innocenti A, Marini L, Meli E, Rindi A. Development of a model for the simultaneous analysis of wheel and rail wear in railway systems. Multibody Syst Dyn 31(2): 191–240 (2014)
[167]
Innocenti A, Marini L, Meli E, Pallini G, Rindi A. Development of a wear model for the analysis of complex railway networks. Wear 309(1–2): 174–191 (2014)
[168]
Pombo J, Ambrósio J, Pereira M, Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce R, Ariaudo C, Kuka N. A study on wear evaluation of railway wheels based on multibody dynamics and wear computation. Multibody Syst Dyn 24(3): 347–366 (2010)
[169]
Pombo J, Ambrósio J, Pereira M, Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce R, Ariaudo C, Kuka N. Development of a wear prediction tool for steel railway wheels using three alternative wear functions. Wear 271(1–2): 238–245 (2011)
[170]
Gallardo-Hernandez E A, Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce R S. Temperature in a twin-disc wheel/rail contact simulation. Tribol Int 39(12): 1653–1663 (2006)
[171]
Blau P J. How common is the steady-state? The implications of wear transitions for materials selection and design. Wear 332–333: 1120–1128 (2015)
[172]
Descartes S, Desrayaud C, Niccolini E, Berthier Y. Presence and role of the third body in a wheel-rail contact. Wear 258(7–8): 1081–1090 (2005)
[173]
Lewis R, Dwyer-Joyce R S, Lewis S R, Hardwick C, Gallardo-Hernandez E A. Tribology of the wheel-rail contact: The effect of third body materials. Int J Railw Tech 1(1): 167–194 (2012)
[174]
Zhu Y. The influence of iron oxides on wheel-rail contact: A literature review. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 232(3): 734–743 (2018)
[175]
Zhu Y, Wang W J, Lewis R, Yan W Y, Lewis S R, Ding H H. A review on wear between railway wheels and rails under environmental conditions. J Tribol 141(12): 1–13 (2019)
[176]
Ma L, Shi L B, Guo J, Liu Q Y, Wang W J. On the wear and damage characteristics of rail material under low temperature environment condition. Wear 394–395: 149–158 (2018)
Friction
Pages 2181-2203
Cite this article:
SHRESTHA S, SPIRYAGIN M, BERNAL E, et al. Recent advances in wheel–rail RCF and wear testing. Friction, 2023, 11(12): 2181-2203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-022-0705-7

367

Views

21

Downloads

1

Crossref

2

Web of Science

2

Scopus

0

CSCD

Received: 02 September 2021
Revised: 09 February 2022
Accepted: 03 October 2022
Published: 29 May 2023
© The author(s) 2022.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Return