Journal Home > Volume 11 , Issue 5

Thanks to their outstanding mechanical properties, Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) are new alternatives to traditional crystalline metals for mechanical and micromechanical applications including power transmission. However, the tribological properties of BMGs are still poorly understood, mostly because their amorphous nature induces counter intuitive responses to friction and wear. In the present study, four different BMGs (Cu47Zr46Al7, Zr46Cu45Al7Nb2, Zr60Cu28Al12, and Zr61Cu25Al12Ti2) underwent ball-on-disc friction tests against 100Cr6 steel balls (American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 52100) at different relative humidities (RHs) ranging from 20% to 80%. Controlling humidity enabled to observe a high repeatability of the friction and wear responses of the BMG. Interestingly, the friction coefficient decreased by a factor of 2 when the humidity was increased, and the wear rate of BMGs was particularly low thanks to a 3rd-body tribolayer that forms on the BMG surface, composed of oxidized wear particles originating from the ball. The morphology of this tribolayer is highly correlated to humidity. The study also identifies how the tribolayer is built up from the initial contact until the steady state is achieved.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
Electronic supplementary material
About this article

Strong dependency of the tribological behavior of CuZr-based bulk metallic glasses on relative humidity in ambient air

Show Author's information Solène BARLEMONT1Paul LAFFONT2Rémi DAUDIN2Alexis LENAIN3Guillaume COLAS1Pierre-Henri CORNUAULT1( )
Femto-ST Institute, Department of Applied Mechanics, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, CNRS/UFC/ENSMM/UTBM, Besançon 25030, France
University of Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, SIMaP, Grenoble 38000, France
Vulkam Inc. Amorphous metal micro casting, Gières 38610, France

Abstract

Thanks to their outstanding mechanical properties, Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) are new alternatives to traditional crystalline metals for mechanical and micromechanical applications including power transmission. However, the tribological properties of BMGs are still poorly understood, mostly because their amorphous nature induces counter intuitive responses to friction and wear. In the present study, four different BMGs (Cu47Zr46Al7, Zr46Cu45Al7Nb2, Zr60Cu28Al12, and Zr61Cu25Al12Ti2) underwent ball-on-disc friction tests against 100Cr6 steel balls (American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 52100) at different relative humidities (RHs) ranging from 20% to 80%. Controlling humidity enabled to observe a high repeatability of the friction and wear responses of the BMG. Interestingly, the friction coefficient decreased by a factor of 2 when the humidity was increased, and the wear rate of BMGs was particularly low thanks to a 3rd-body tribolayer that forms on the BMG surface, composed of oxidized wear particles originating from the ball. The morphology of this tribolayer is highly correlated to humidity. The study also identifies how the tribolayer is built up from the initial contact until the steady state is achieved.

Keywords:

Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs), tribology, oxide transfer layer, relative humidity (RH)
Received: 28 February 2022 Revised: 05 July 2022 Accepted: 03 August 2022 Published: 06 January 2023 Issue date: May 2023
References(54)
[1]
Inoue A. Bulk glassy alloys: Historical development and current research. Engineering 1(2): 185–191 (2015)
[2]
Inoue A, Nishiyama N. New bulk metallic glasses for applications as magnetic-sensing, chemical, and structural materials. MRS Bull 32(8): 651–658 (2007)
[3]
Telford M. The case for bulk metallic glass. Mater Today 7(3): 36–43 (2004)
[4]
Greer A L. Metallic glasses… on the threshold. Mater Today 12(1–2): 14–22 (2009)
[5]
Niza M E, Komori M, Nomura T, Yamaji I, Nishiyama N, Ishida M, Shimizu Y. Test rig for micro gear and experimental analysis on the meshing condition and failure characteristics of steel micro involute gear and metallic glass one. Mech Mach Theory 45(12): 1797–1812 (2010)
[6]
Hofmann D C, Andersen L M, Kolodziejska J, Roberts S N, Borgonia J P, Johnson W L, Vecchio K S, Kennett A. Optimizing bulk metallic glasses for robust, highly wear-resistant gears. Adv Eng Mater 19(1): 1600541 (2017)
[7]
Prakash B. Abrasive wear behaviour of Fe, Co and Ni based metallic glasses. Wear 258(1–4): 217–224 (2005)
[8]
Parlar Z, Bakkal M, Shih A J. Sliding tribological characteristics of Zr-based bulk metallic glass. Intermetallics 16(1): 34–41 (2008)
[9]
Zhong H, Chen J, Dai L Y, Yue Y, Zhang Z W, Zhang X Y, Ma M Z, Liu R P. Tribological behaviors of Zr-based bulk metallic glass versus Zr-based bulk metallic glass under relative heavy loads. Intermetallics 65: 88–93 (2015)
[10]
Wang Y, Zhang L, Wang T, Hui X D, Chen W, Feng C F. Effect of sliding velocity on the transition of wear mechanism in (Zr,Cu)95Al5 bulk metallic glass. Tribol Int 101: 141–151 (2016)
[11]
Jiang F, Qu J, Fan G J, Jiang W H, Qiao D C, Freels M W, Liaw P K, Choo H. Tribological studies of a Zr-based glass-forming alloy with different states. Adv Eng Mater 11(11): 925–931 (2009)
[12]
Bhatt J, Kumar S, Dong C, Murty B S. Tribological behaviour of Cu60Zr30Ti10 bulk metallic glass. Mater Sci Eng A 458(1–2): 290–294 (2007)
[13]
Zhao J, Gao M, Ma M X, Cao X F, He Y Y, Wang W H, Luo J B. Influence of annealing on the tribological properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glass. J Non-Cryst Solids 481: 94–97 (2018)
[14]
Jin H W, Ayer R, Koo J Y, Raghavan R, Ramamurty U. Reciprocating wear mechanisms in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass. J Mater Res 22(2): 264–273 (2007)
[15]
Wu X F, Zhang G A, Wu F F. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix composites. Bull Mater Sci 39(3): 703–709 (2016)
[16]
Yong L, Zhu Y T, Luo X K, Liu Z M. Wear behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass and its composites. J Alloys Compd 503(1): 138–144 (2010)
[17]
Aditya A, Wu H F, Arora H, Mukherjee S. Amorphous metallic alloys: Pathways for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. JOM 69(11): 2150–2155 (2017)
[18]
Greer A L, Rutherford K L, Hutchings I M. Wear resistance of amorphous alloys and related materials. Int Mater Rev 47(2): 87–112 (2002)
[19]
Fleury E, Lee S M, Ahn H S, Kim W T, Kim D H. Tribological properties of bulk metallic glasses. Mater Sci Eng A 375–377: 276–279 (2004)
[20]
Maddala D R, Hebert R J. Sliding wear behavior of Fe50−xCr15Mo14C15B6Erx (x = 0, 1, 2 at%) bulk metallic glass. Wear 294–295: 246–256 (2012)
[21]
Liao Z L, Hua N B, Chen W Z, Huang Y T, Zhang T. Correlations between the wear resistance and properties of bulk metallic glasses. Intermetallics 93: 290–298 (2018)
[22]
Archard J F. Contact and rubbing of flat surfaces. J Appl Phys 24(8): 981–988 (1953)
[23]
Wu H, Baker I, Liu Y, Wu X L, Munroe P R, Zhang J G. Tribological studies of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass. Intermetallics 35: 25–32 (2013)
[24]
Fu X Y, Kasai T, Falk M L, Rigney D A. Sliding behavior of metallic glass: Part I. Experimental investigations. Wear 250(1–12): 409–419 (2001)
[25]
Wu K, Zheng L J, Zhang H. Research on high-Al Cu–Zr–Al–Y bulk metallic glass and its composites. J Alloys Compd 770: 1029–1037 (2019)
[26]
Andersen L M. Toughness of wear-resistant Cu–Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Ph.D. Thesis. San Diego (USA): University of California, 2016.
[27]
Salehan R, Shahverdi H R, Miresmaeili R. Effects of annealing on the tribological behavior of Zr60Cu10Al15Ni15 bulk metallic glass. J Non-Cryst Solids 517: 127–136 (2019)
[28]
Kai W, Hsieh H H, Nieh T G, Kawamura Y. Oxidation behavior of a Zr–Cu–Al–Ni amorphous alloy in air at 300–425 ºC. Intermetallics 10(11–12): 1265–1270 (2002)
[29]
Ma H R, Bennewitz R. Nanoscale friction and growth of surface oxides on a metallic glass under electrochemical polarization. Tribol Int 158: 106925 (2021)
[30]
Kang S J, Rittgen K T, Kwan S G, Park H W, Bennewitz R, Caron A. Importance of surface oxide for the tribology of a Zr-based metallic glass. Friction 5(1): 115–122 (2017)
[31]
Caron A, Sharma P, Shluger A, Fecht H J, Louzguine-Luzguin D V, Inoue A. Effect of surface oxidation on the nm-scale wear behavior of a metallic glass. J Appl Phys 109(8): 083515 (2011)
[32]
Zhou Q, Han W C, Luo D W, Du Y, Xie J Y, Wang X Z, Zou Q G, Zhao X X, Wang H F, Beake B D. Mechanical and tribological properties of Zr–Cu–Ni–Al bulk metallic glasses with dual-phase structure. Wear 474–475: 203880 (2021)
[33]
Cornuault P H, Colas G, Lenain A, Daudin R, Gravier S. On the diversity of accommodation mechanisms in the tribology of Bulk Metallic Glasses. Tribol Int 141: 105957 (2020)
[34]
Lancaster J K. A review of the influence of environmental humidity and water on friction, lubrication and wear. Tribol Int 23(6): 371–389 (1990)
[35]
Chen Z, He X, Xiao C, Kim S H. Effect of humidity on friction and wear—A critical review. Lubricants 6(3): 74 (2018)
[36]
Wu H, Baker I, Liu Y, Wu X L, Munroe P R. Effects of environment on the sliding tribological behaviors of Zr-based bulk metallic glass. Intermetallics 25: 115–125 (2012)
[37]
Jones M R, Kustas A B, Lu P, Chandross M, Argibay N. Environment-dependent tribological properties of bulk metallic glasses. Tribol Lett 68(4): 123 (2020)
[38]
Czichos H, Becker S, Lexow J. Multilaboratory tribotesting: Results from the Versailles Advanced Materials and Standards programme on wear test methods. Wear 114(1): 109–130 (1987)
[39]
Romanowicz P J, Szybiński B. Fatigue life assessment of rolling bearings made from AISI 52100 bearing steel. Materials 12(3): 371 (2019)
[40]
Madge D S. The control of relative humidity with aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide. Entomol Exp Appl 4(2): 143–147 (1961)
[41]
Stokes R H, Robinson R A. Standard solutions for humidity control at 25 ℃. Ind Eng Chem 41(9): 2013 (1949)
[42]
Ayerdi J J, Aginagalde A, Llavori I, Bonse J, Spaltmann D, Zabala A. Ball-on-flat linear reciprocating tests: Critical assessment of wear volume determination methods and suggested improvements for ASTM D7755 standard. Wear 470–471: 203620 (2021)
[43]
Tam C Y, Shek C H, Wang W H. Oxidation behaviour of a Cu–Zr–Al bulk metallic glass. Rev Adv Mater Sci 18(2): 107–111 (2008)
[44]
Nie X P, Yang X H, Chen L Y, Yeap K B, Zeng K Y, Li D, Pan J S, Wang X D, Cao Q P, Ding S Q, et al. The effect of oxidation on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of a Zr-based metallic glass. Corros Sci 53(11): 3557–3565 (2011)
[45]
Kilo M, Hund M, Sauer G, Baiker A, Wokaun A. Reaction induced surface segregation in amorphous CuZr, NiZr and PdZr alloys—An XPS and SIMS depth profiling study. J Alloys Compd 236(1–2): 137–150 (1996)
[46]
Kimura H M, Asami K, Inoue A, Masumoto T. The oxidation of amorphous Zr-base binary alloys in air. Corros Sci 35(5–8): 909–915 (1993)
[47]
Hawn D D, DeKoven B M. Deconvolution as a correction for photoelectron inelastic energy losses in the core level XPS spectra of iron oxides. Surf Interface Anal 10(2–3): 63–74 (1987)
[48]
Prakash B, Hiratsuka K. Sliding wear behaviour of some Fe-, Co- and Ni-based metallic glasses during rubbing against bearing steel. Tribol Lett 8(2–3): 153–160 (2000)
[49]
Leheup E R, Pendlebury R E. Unlubricated reciprocating wear of stainless steel with an interfacial air flow. Wear 142(2): 351–372 (1991)
[50]
De Baets P, Kalacska G, Strijckmans K, van de Velde F, van Peteghem A P. Experimental study by means of thin layer activation of the humidity influence on the fretting wear of steel surfaces. Wear 216(2): 131–137 (1998)
[51]
Yamamoto S, Kendelewicz T, Newberg J T, Ketteler G, Starr D E, Mysak E R, Andersson K J, Ogasawara H, Bluhm H, Salmeron M, et al. Water adsorption on α-Fe2O3(0001) at near ambient conditions. J Phys Chem C 114(5): 2256–2266 (2010)
[52]
Bhowmik S, Naik R. Selection of abrasive materials for manufacturing grinding wheels. Mater Today Proc 5(1): 2860–2864 (2018)
[53]
Klaffke D. On the repeatability of friction and wear results and on the influence of humidity in oscillating sliding tests of steel-steel pairings. Wear 189(1–2): 117–121 (1995)
[54]
Oh H K, Yeon K H, Kim H Y. The influence of atmospheric humidity on the friction and wear of carbon steels. J Mater Process Technol 95(1–3): 10–16 (1999)
File
40544_0680_ESM.pdf (1.5 MB)
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 28 February 2022
Revised: 05 July 2022
Accepted: 03 August 2022
Published: 06 January 2023
Issue date: May 2023

Copyright

© The author(s) 2022.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the EUR EIPHI Graduate School (ANR-17-EURE-0002). The authors are thankful for the financial support provided by the French National Research Agency (ANR) (ANR-19-CE08-0015). The authors thank Olivier HEINTZ and Anna KRYSTIANIAK (ICB lab at Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France) for providing the XPS spectrums, Marina RASCHETTI (Femto-ST Institute, France) for her help in using software Mountains® (Digital Surf), Peter SERLES (the NanoMechanics and Materials Laboratory at University of Toronto, Canada) for English spelling and grammar corrections, and the technology center MIMENTO (Femto-ST Institute, France).

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Return