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The clarification of the critical operating conditions and the failure mechanism of superlubricity systems is of great significance for seeking appropriate applications in industry. In this work, the superlubricity region of 1,3-diketone oil EPND (1-(4-ethyl phenyl) nonane-1,3-dione) on steel surfaces was identified by performing a series of ball-on-disk rotation friction tests under various normal loads (3.5–64 N) and sliding velocities (100–600 mm/s). The result shows that beyond certain loads or velocities superlubricity failed to be reached due to the following negative effects: (1) Under low load (≤ 3.5 N), insufficient running-in could not ensure good asperity level conformity between the upper and lower surfaces; (2) the high load (≥ 64 N) produced excessive wear and big debris; (3) at low velocity (≤ 100 mm/s), the weak hydrodynamic effect and the generated debris deteriorated the lubrication performance; (4) at high velocity (≥ 500 mm/s), oil migration occurred and resulted in oil starvation. In order to expand the load and velocity boundaries of the superlubricity region, an optimized running-in method was proposed to avoid the above negative effects. By initially operating a running-in process under a suitable combination of load and velocity (e.g. 16 N and 300 mm/s) and then switching to the target certain higher or lower load/velocity (e.g. 100 N), the superlubricity region could break through its original boundaries. The result of this work suggests that oil-based superlubricity of 1,3-diketone is a promising solution to friction reduction under suitable operating conditions especially using a well-designed running-in strategy.


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Load and velocity boundaries of oil-based superlubricity using 1,3-diketone

Show Author's information Yuyang YUAN1,2Tobias AMANN3Yuwen XU1,2Yan ZHANG1,2Jingfu CHEN1,2Chenqing YUAN1,2Ke LI1,2( )
School of Transportation and Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063, China
Reliability Engineering Institute, National Engineering Research Center for Water Transport Safety, MOST, Wuhan 430063, China
Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Freiburg 79108, Germany

Abstract

The clarification of the critical operating conditions and the failure mechanism of superlubricity systems is of great significance for seeking appropriate applications in industry. In this work, the superlubricity region of 1,3-diketone oil EPND (1-(4-ethyl phenyl) nonane-1,3-dione) on steel surfaces was identified by performing a series of ball-on-disk rotation friction tests under various normal loads (3.5–64 N) and sliding velocities (100–600 mm/s). The result shows that beyond certain loads or velocities superlubricity failed to be reached due to the following negative effects: (1) Under low load (≤ 3.5 N), insufficient running-in could not ensure good asperity level conformity between the upper and lower surfaces; (2) the high load (≥ 64 N) produced excessive wear and big debris; (3) at low velocity (≤ 100 mm/s), the weak hydrodynamic effect and the generated debris deteriorated the lubrication performance; (4) at high velocity (≥ 500 mm/s), oil migration occurred and resulted in oil starvation. In order to expand the load and velocity boundaries of the superlubricity region, an optimized running-in method was proposed to avoid the above negative effects. By initially operating a running-in process under a suitable combination of load and velocity (e.g. 16 N and 300 mm/s) and then switching to the target certain higher or lower load/velocity (e.g. 100 N), the superlubricity region could break through its original boundaries. The result of this work suggests that oil-based superlubricity of 1,3-diketone is a promising solution to friction reduction under suitable operating conditions especially using a well-designed running-in strategy.

Keywords:

macroscopic superlubricity, 1,3-diketone oil, running-in process, load and velocity boundaries
Received: 23 January 2022 Revised: 17 March 2022 Accepted: 04 May 2022 Published: 06 January 2023 Issue date: May 2023
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Publication history

Received: 23 January 2022
Revised: 17 March 2022
Accepted: 04 May 2022
Published: 06 January 2023
Issue date: May 2023

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© The author(s) 2022.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51975437), and the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion (SGC) (GZ 1576).

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