AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
Home Friction Article
PDF (3.6 MB)
Collect
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Review Article | Open Access

A review of current understanding in tribochemical reactions involving lubricant additives

Yan CHEN1Peter RENNER2Hong LIANG1,2( )
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843, USA
J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843, USA
Show Author Information

Graphical Abstract

Abstract

Lubricants have played important roles in friction and wear reduction and increasing efficiency of mechanical systems. To optimize tribological performance, chemical reactions between a lubricant and a substrate must be designed strategically. Tribochemical reactions are chemical reactions enabled or accelerated by mechanical stimuli. Tribochemically activated lubricant additives play important roles in these reactions. In this review, current understanding in mechanisms of chemical reactions under shear has been discussed. Additives such as oil-soluble organics, ionic liquids (ILs), and nanoparticles (NPs) were analyzed in relation to the tribochemical reaction routes with elements in metallic substrates. The results indicated that phosphorus, sulfur, fluorine, and nitrogen are key elements for tribochemical reactions. The resulting tribofilms from zinc dithiophosphates (ZDDP) and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) have been widely reported, yet that from ILs and NPs need to investigate further. This review serves as a reference for researchers to design and optimize new lubricants.

References

[1]
Spikes H. Friction modifier additives. Tribol Lett 60(1): 5 (2015)
[2]
Spikes H. The history and mechanisms of ZDDP. Tribol Lett 17(3): 469–489 (2004)
[3]
Dai W, Kheireddin B, Gao H, Liang H. Roles of nanoparticles in oil lubrication. Tribol Int 102: 88–98 (2016)
[4]
Choa S H, Ludema K C, Potter G E, Dekoven B M, Morgan T A, Kar K K. A model of the dynamics of boundary film formation. Wear 177(1): 33–45 (1994)
[5]
Fein R S, Kreuz K L. Chemistry of boundary lubrication of steel by hydrocarbons. ASLE Trans 8(1): 29–38 (1965)
[6]
Li J J, Zhang C H, Luo J B. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of polyhydroxy alcohols and acids. Langmuir 29(17): 5239–5245 (2013)
[7]
Ge X Y, Li J J, Zhang C H, Luo J B. Liquid superlubricity of polyethylene glycol aqueous solution achieved with boric acid additive. Langmuir 34(12): 3578–3587 (2018)
[8]
Georges J M, Martin J M, Mathia T, Kapsa P, Meille G, Montes H. Mechanism of boundary lubrication with zinc dithiophosphate. Wear 53(1): 9–34 (1979)
[9]
Nygaard E M, Oberright E A. Lubricating oil containing zinc carboxylate-coordinated zinc dithiophosphates. U.S. Patent 3 102 096, Aug. 1963.
[10]
Taylor L, Dratva A, Spikes H A. Friction and wear behavior of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additive. Tribol Trans 43(3): 469–479 (2000)
[11]
Yamamoto Y, Gondo S. Friction and wear characteristics of molybdenum dithiocarbamate and molybdenum dithiophosphate. Tribol Trans 32(2): 251–257 (1989)
[12]
Topolovec-Miklozic K, Forbus T R, Spikes H. Film forming and friction properties of overbased calcium sulphonate detergents. Tribol Lett 29(1): 33–44 (2008)
[13]
Wu Y L, He Z Y, Zeng X Q, Ren T H, de Vries E, van der Heide E. Tribological properties and tribochemistry mechanism of sulfur-containing triazine derivatives in water–glycol. Tribol Int 109: 140–151 (2017)
[14]
Callen H B. Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, 2nd edn. Hoboken (USA): John Wiley & Sons, 1985.
[15]
Mosey N J, Woo T K. A quantum chemical study of the unimolecular decomposition mechanisms of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate antiwear additives. J Phys Chem A 108(28): 6001–6016 (2004)
[16]
Yue D C, Ma T B, Hu Y Z, Yeon J, van Duin A C T, Wang H, Luo J B. Tribochemistry of phosphoric acid sheared between quartz surfaces: A reactive molecular dynamics study. J Phys Chem C 117(48): 25604–25614 (2013)
[17]
Sherwood B A, Bernard W H. Work and heat transfer in the presence of sliding friction. Am J Phys 52(11): 1001–1007 (1984)
[18]
Kennedy F E Jr. Thermal and thermomechanical effects in dry sliding. Wear 100(1–3): 453–476 (1984)
[19]
Liu G, Wang Q. Thermoelastic asperity contacts, frictional shear, and parameter correlations. J Tribol 122(1): 300–307 (2000)
[20]
Khonsari M M, Hua D Y. Thermal elastohydrodynamic analysis using a generalized non-Newtonian formulation with application to Bair–Winer constitutive equation. J Tribol 116(1): 37–46 (1994)
[21]
Bresme F, Lervik A, Bedeaux D, Kjelstrup S. Water polarization under thermal gradients. Phys Rev Lett 101(2): 020602 (2008)
[22]
Jou D, Casas-Vázquez J, Criado-Sancho M. Thermodynamics of Fluids Under Flow, 2nd edn. Dordrecht (the Netherlands): Springer Dordrecht, 2011.
[23]
Nakayama K, Hashimoto H. Triboemission from various materials in atmosphere. Wear 147(2): 335–343 (1991)
[24]
Kajdas C K. Importance of the triboemission process for tribochemical reaction. Tribol Int 38(3): 337–353 (2005)
[25]
Kajdas C, Kulczycki A, Ozimina D. A new concept of the mechanism of tribocatalytic reactions induced by mechanical forces. Tribol Int 107: 144–151 (2017)
[26]
Nakayama K, Hashimoto H. Triboemission, tribochemical reaction, and friction and wear in ceramics under various n-butane gas pressures. Tribol Int 29(5): 385–393 (1996)
[27]
Wiita A P, Ainavarapu S R K, Huang H H, Fernandez J M. Force-dependent chemical kinetics of disulfide bond reduction observed with single-molecule techniques. PNAS 103(19): 7222–7227 (2006)
[28]
Adams H L, Garvey M T, Ramasamy U S, Ye Z J, Martini A, Tysoe W T. Shear-induced mechanochemistry: Pushing molecules around. J Phys Chem C 119(13): 7115–7123 (2015)
[29]
Liang J, Fernández J M. Kinetic measurements on single-molecule disulfide bond cleavage. J Am Chem Soc 133(10): 3528–3534 (2011)
[30]
Yeon J, He X, Martini A, Kim S H. Mechanochemistry at solid surfaces: Polymerization of adsorbed molecules by mechanical shear at tribological interfaces. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(3): 3142–3148 (2017)
[31]
Khajeh A, He X, Yeon J, Kim S H, Martini A. Mechanochemical association reaction of interfacial molecules driven by shear. Langmuir 34(21): 5971–5977 (2018)
[32]
Akchurin A, Bosman R. A deterministic stress-activated model for tribo-film growth and wear simulation. Tribol Lett 65(2): 59 (2017)
[33]
Zhang J, Spikes H. On the mechanism of ZDDP antiwear film formation. Tribol Lett 63(2): 24 (2016)
[34]
Gosvami N N, Bares J A, Mangolini F, Konicek A R, Yablon D G, Carpick R W. Mechanisms of antiwear tribofilm growth revealed in situ by single-asperity sliding contacts. Science 348(6230): 102–106 (2015)
[35]
Gao F, Liang H. Transformable oxidation of tantalum in electrochemical mechanical polishing (ECMP). J Electron Mater 40(2): 134–140 (2011)
[36]
Dorgham A, Azam A, Morina A, Neville A. On the transient decomposition and reaction kinetics of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10(51): 44803–44814 (2018)
[37]
Dorgham A, Parsaeian P, Azam A, Wang C, Morina A, Neville A. Single-asperity study of the reaction kinetics of P-based triboreactive films. Tribol Int 133: 288–296 (2019)
[38]
Wei D P. Future directions of fundamental research in additive tribochemistry. Lubr Sci 7(3): 211–232 (1995)
[39]
Spikes H. The history and mechanisms of ZDDP. Trib Lett 17: 469–489 (2004)
[40]
Cook E W, Thomas W D Jr. Crankcase lubricant and chemical compound therefor. U.S. Patent 2 342 572, 1944.
[41]
Asseff P A. Lubricant, 1941.
[42]
Freuler H C. Modified lubricating oil. U.S. Patent 2 364 284, 1944.
[43]
Prutton C F. Inhibitor. U.S. Patent 2 224 695, 1940.
[44]
Jacob F. Corrosion inhibitor for lubricating oils. U.S. Patent 2 349 785, 1944.
[45]
Larson R. The performance of zinc dithiophosphates as lubricating oil additives. Ind Lubr Tribol 10(8): 12–19 (1958)
[46]
Armstrong D R, Ferrari E S, Roberts K J, Adams D. An investigation into the molecular stability of zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphates (ZDDPs) in relation to their use as anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives in lubricating oils. Wear 208(1–2): 138–146 (1997)
[47]
Fox M F, Pawlak Z, Picken D J. Inverse micelles and solubilization of proton donors in hydrocarbon formulations. Tribol Int 24(6): 341–349 (1991)
[48]
Allum K G, Forbes E S. The load-carrying properties of metal dialkyl dithiophosphates: The effect of chemical structure. Proc Inst Mech Eng Conf Proc 183(16): 7–14 (1968)
[49]
Born M, Hipeaux J C, Marchand P, Parc G. The relationship between chemical structure and effectiveness of some metallic dialkyl- and diaryl-dithiophosphates in different lubricated mechanisms. Lubr Sci 4(2): 93–116 (1992)
[50]
Fuller M L S, Kasrai M, Bancroft G M, Fyfe K, Tan K H. Solution decomposition of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate and its effect on antiwear and thermal film formation studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Tribol Int 31(10): 627–644 (1998)
[51]
Fujita H, Glovnea R P, Spikes H A. Study of zinc dialkydithiophosphate antiwear film formation and removal processes, Part I: Experimental. Tribol Trans 48(4): 558–566 (2005)
[52]
Aktary M, McDermott M T, Torkelson J. Morphological evolution of films formed from thermooxidative decomposition of ZDDP. Wear 247(2): 172–179 (2001)
[53]
Martin J M. Antiwear mechanisms of zinc dithiophosphate: A chemical hardness approach. Tribol Lett 6(1): 1–8 (1999)
[54]
Belin M, Martin J M, Mansot J L. Role of iron in the amorphization process in friction-induced phosphate glasses. Tribol Trans 32(3): 410–413 (1989)
[55]
Fuller M, Yin Z F, Kasrai M, Bancroft G M, Yamaguchi E S, Ryason P R, Willermet P A, Tan K H. Chemical characterization of tribochemical and thermal films generated from neutral and basic ZDDPs using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Tribol Int 30(4): 305–315 (1997)
[56]
Jones R B, Coy R C. The chemistry of the thermal degradation of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additives. ASLE Trans 24(1): 91–97 (1981)
[57]
Coy R C, Jones R B. The thermal degradation and EP performance of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additives in white oil. ASLE Trans 24(1): 77–90 (1981)
[58]
Willermet P A, Dailey D P, Carter R O III, Schmitz P J, Zhu W. Mechanism of formation of antiwear films from zinc dialkyldithiophosphates. Tribol Int 28(3): 177–187 (1995)
[59]
Martin J M, Belin M, Mansot J L, Dexpert H, Lagarde P. Friction-induced amorphization with ZDDP—An EXAFS study. ASLE Trans 29(4): 523–531 (1986)
[60]
Yin Z F, Kasrai M, Bancroft G M, Laycock K F, Tan K H. Chemical characterization of antiwear films generated on steel by zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Tribol Int 26(6): 383–388 (1993)
[61]
Dacre B, Bovington C H. The effect of metal composition on the adsorption of zinc di-isopropyldithiophosphate. ASLE Trans 26(3): 333–343 (1983)
[62]
Bell J C, Delargy K M, Seeney A M. Paper IX (ii) the removal of substrate material through thick zinc dithiophosphate anti-wear films. Tribology Series 21: 387–396 (1992)
[63]
Yin Z F, Kasrai M, Fuller M, Bancroft G M, Fyfe K, Tan K H. Application of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in chemical characterization of antiwear films generated by ZDDP Part I: The effects of physical parameters. Wear 202(2): 172–191 (1997)
[64]
Yin Z F. Chemistry of antiwear films by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Ph.D. Thesis. Ontario (Canada): Western University, 1995.
[65]
Bancroft G M, Kasrai M, Fuller M, Yin Z, Fyfe K, Tan K H. Mechanisms of tribochemical film formation: Stability of tribo- and thermally-generated ZDDP films. Tribol Lett 3(1): 47–51 (1997)
[66]
Ferrari E S, Roberts K J, Adams D. A multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the reactivity of zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphates (ZDDPs) anti-wear additives: 1. an examination of representative model compounds. Wear 236(1–2): 246–258 (1999)
[67]
Ferrari E S, Roberts K J, Sansone M, Adams D. A multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the reactivity of zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphates anti-wear additives: 2. in situ studies of steel/oil interfaces. Wear 236(1–2): 259–275 (1999)
[68]
Panzmer G, Egert B. The bonding state of sulfur segregated to α-iron surfaces and on iron sulfide surfaces studied by XPS, AES and ELS. Surf Sci 144(2–3): 651–664 (1984)
[69]
Spedding H, Watkins R C. The antiwear mechanism of ZDDP’s. Part I. Tribol Int 15(1): 9–12 (1982)
[70]
De Barros-Bouchet M I, Righi M C, Philippon D, Mambingo-Doumbe S, le Mogne T, Martin J M, Bouffet A. Tribochemistry of phosphorus additives: Experiments and first-principles calculations. RSC Adv 5(61): 49270–49279 (2015)
[71]
Xiang L H, Gao C P, Wang Y M, Pan Z D, Hu D W. Tribological and tribochemical properties of magnetite nanoflakes as additives in oil lubricants. Particuology 17: 136–144 (2014)
[72]
Aktary M, McDermott M T, McAlpine G A. Morphology and nanomechanical properties of ZDDP antiwear films as a function of tribological contact time. Tribol Lett 12(3): 155–162 (2002)
[73]
Parsaeian P, Ghanbarzadeh A, van Eijk M C P, Nedelcu I, Neville A, Morina A. A new insight into the interfacial mechanisms of the tribofilm formed by zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. Appl Surf Sci 403: 472–486 (2017)
[74]
Gosvami N N, Lahouij I, Ma J, Carpick R W. Nanoscale in situ study of ZDDP tribofilm growth at aluminum-based interfaces using atomic force microscopy. Tribol Int 143: 106075 (2020)
[75]
Ueda M, Kadiric A, Spikes H. ZDDP tribofilm formation on non-ferrous surfaces. Tribol Online 15(5): 318–331 (2020)
[76]
Fujita H, Spikes H A. Study of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate antiwear film formation and removal processes, Part II: Kinetic model. Tribol Trans 48(4): 567–575 (2005)
[77]
Ghanbarzadeh A, Wilson M, Morina A, Dowson D, Neville A. Development of a new mechano-chemical model in boundary lubrication. Tribol Int 93: 573–582 (2016)
[78]
Gunsel S, Spikes H A, Aderin M. In-situ measurement of ZDDP films in concentrated contacts. Tribol Trans 36(2): 276–282 (1993)
[79]
Ghanbarzadeh A, Parsaeian P, Morina A, Wilson M C T, van Eijk M C P, Nedelcu I, Dowson D, Neville A. A semi-deterministic wear model considering the effect of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate tribofilm. Tribol Lett 61(1): 12 (2016)
[80]
Beyer M K, Clausen-Schaumann H. Mechanochemistry: The mechanical activation of covalent bonds. Chem Rev 105(8): 2921–2948 (2005)
[81]
Tysoe W. On stress-induced tribochemical reaction rates. Tribol Lett 65(2): 48 (2017)
[82]
Parsaeian P, Ghanbarzadeh A, van Eijk M C P, Nedelcu I, Morina A, Neville A. Study of the interfacial mechanism of ZDDP tribofilm in humid environment and its effect on tribochemical wear; Part II: Numerical. Tribol Int 107: 33–38 (2017)
[83]
Archard J F. Contact and rubbing of flat surfaces. J Appl Phys 24(8): 981–988 (1953)
[84]
Andersson J, Larsson R, Almqvist A, Grahn M, Minami I. Semi-deterministic chemo-mechanical model of boundary lubrication. Faraday Discuss 156: 343–360 (2012)
[85]
Bulgarevich S B, Boiko M V, Kolesnikov V I, Feizova V A. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of probable chemical reactions in the tribocontact zone and the effect of heavy pressure on evolution of adsorption processes. J Frict Wear 32(4): 301 (2011)
[86]
Bulgarevich S B, Boiko M V, Kolesnikov V I, Korets K E. Population of transition states of triboactivated chemical processes. J Frict Wear 31(4): 288–293 (2010)
[87]
Mitchell P C H. Oil-soluble Mo–S compounds as lubricant additives. Wear 100(1–3): 281–300 (1984)
[88]
Vengudusamy B, Green J H, Lamb G D, Spikes H A. Behaviour of MoDTC in DLC/DLC and DLC/steel contacts. Tribol Int 54: 68–76 (2012)
[89]
Espejo C, Wang C, Thiébaut B, Charrin C, Neville A, Morina A. The role of MoDTC tribochemistry in engine tribology performance. A Raman microscopy investigation. Tribol Int 150: 106366 (2020)
[90]
Rodríguez Ripoll M, Totolin V, Gabler C, Bernardi J, Minami I. Diallyl disulphide as natural organosulphur friction modifier via the in-situ tribo-chemical formation of tungsten disulphide. Appl Surf Sci 428: 659–668 (2018)
[91]
Graham J, Spikes H, Korcek S. The friction reducing properties of molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate additives: Part I—Factors influencing friction reduction. Tribol Trans 44(4): 626–636 (2001)
[92]
Sakurai T, Okabe H, Isoyama H. The synthesis of di-μ-thio-dithio-bis(dialkyldithiocarbamates) dimolybdenum (V) and their effects on boundary lubrication. Bull Jpn Petrol Inst 13(2): 243–249 (1971)
[93]
Braithwaite E R, Greene A B. A critical analysis of the performance of molybdenum compounds in motor vehicles. Wear 46(2): 405–432 (1978)
[94]
Grossiord C, Martin J M, le Mogne T, Palermo T. In situ MoS2 formation and selective transfer from MoDPT films. Surf Coat Technol 108–109: 352–359 (1998)
[95]
Rai Y, Neville A, Morina A. Transient processes of MoS2 tribofilm formation under boundary lubrication. Lubr Sci 28(7): 449–471 (2016)
[96]
Grossiord C, Varlot K, Martin J M, le Mogne T, Esnouf C, Inoue K. MoS2 single sheet lubrication by molybdenum dithiocarbamate. Tribol Int 31(12): 737–743 (1998)
[97]
Martin J M, le Mogne T, Boehm M, Grossiord C. Tribochemistry in the analytical UHV tribometer. Tribol Int 32(11): 617–626 (1999)
[98]
Martin J M, le Mogne T, Bilas P, Vacher B, Yamada Y. Effect of oxidative degradation on mechanisms of friction reduction by MoDTC. Tribology Series 40: 207–213 (2002)
[99]
Onodera T, Morita Y, Suzuki A, Sahnoun R, Koyama M, Tsuboi H, Hatakeyama N, Endou A, Takaba H, del Carpio C A, et al. A theoretical investigation on the dynamic behavior of molybdenum dithiocarbamate molecule in the engine oil phase. Tribol Online 3(2): 80–85 (2008)
[100]
Onodera T, Morita Y, Suzuki A, Sahnoun R, Koyama M, Tsuboi H, Hatakeyama N, Endou A, Takaba H, del Carpio C A, et al. Tribochemical reaction dynamics of molybdenum dithiocarbamate on nascent iron surface: A hybrid quantum chemical/classical molecular dynamics study. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 10(4): 2495–2502 (2010)
[101]
Morita Y, Onodera T, Suzuki A, Sahnoun R, Koyama M, Tsuboi H, Hatakeyama N, Endou A, Takaba H, Kubo M, et al. Development of a new molecular dynamics method for tribochemical reaction and its application to formation dynamics of MoS2 tribofilm. Appl Surf Sci 254(23): 7618–7621 (2008)
[102]
Onodera T, Morita Y, Suzuki A, Koyama M, Tsuboi H, Hatakeyama N, Endou A, Takaba H, Kubo M, Dassenoy F, et al. A computational chemistry study on friction of h-MoS2. Part I. Mechanism of single sheet lubrication. J Phys Chem B 113(52): 16526–16536 (2009)
[103]
Oumahi C, de Barros-Bouchet MI, le Mogne T, Charrin C, Loridant S, Geantet C, Afanasiev P, Thiebaut B. MoS2 formation induced by amorphous MoS3 species under lubricated friction. RSC Adv 8(46): 25867–25872 (2018)
[104]
Huang G W, Yu Q L, Cai M R, Zhou F, Liu W M. Investigation of the lubricity and antiwear behavior of guanidinium ionic liquids at high temperature. Tribol Int 114: 65–76 (2017)
[105]
Wu X H, Zhao G Q, Wang X B, Liu W M, Liu W S. In situ formed ionic liquids in lard oil as high-performance lubricants for steel/steel contacts at elevated temperature. Lubr Sci 30(2): 65–72 (2018)
[106]
Fu X S, Sun L G, Zhou X G, Li Z P, Ren T H. Tribological study of oil-miscible quaternary ammonium phosphites ionic liquids as lubricant additives in PAO. Tribol Lett 60(2): 23 (2015)
[107]
Wang Y R, Yu Q L, Cai M R, Zhou F, Liu W M. Halide-free PN ionic liquids surfactants as additives for enhancing tribological performance of water-based liquid. Tribol Int 128: 190–196 (2018)
[108]
Ye C F, Liu W M, Chen Y X, Yu L G. Room-temperature ionic liquids: A novel versatile lubricant. Chem Commun 37(21): 2244–2245 (2001)
[109]
Zhou F, Liang Y, Liu W. Ionic liquid lubricants: Designed chemistry for engineering applications. Chem Soc Rev 38(9): 2590–2599 (2009)
[110]
Comtet J, Niguès A, Kaiser V, Coasne B, Bocquet L, Siria A. Nanoscale capillary freezing of ionic liquids confined between metallic interfaces and the role of electronic screening. Nat Mater 16(6): 634–639 (2017)
[111]
Somers A E, Howlett P C, MacFarlane D R, Forsyth M. A review of ionic liquid lubricants. Lubricants 1(1): 3–21 (2013)
[112]
Huang G W, Yu Q L, Ma Z F, Cai M R, Liu W M. Probing the lubricating mechanism of oil-soluble ionic liquids additives. Tribol Int 107: 152–162 (2017)
[113]
Song Z H, Liang Y M, Fan M J, Zhou F, Liu W M. Ionic liquids from amino acids: Fully green fluid lubricants for various surface contacts. RSC Adv 4(37): 19396–19402 (2014)
[114]
Lu R G, Mori S, Kobayashi K, Nanao H. Study of tribochemical decomposition of ionic liquids on a nascent steel surface. Appl Surf Sci 255(22): 8965–8971 (2009)
[115]
Yu Q L, Wang Y R, Huang G W, Ma Z F, Shi Y J, Cai M R, Zhou F, Liu W M. Task-specific oil-miscible ionic liquids lubricate steel/light metal alloy: A tribochemistry study. Adv Mater Interfaces 5(19): 1800791 (2018)
[116]
Zhou Y, Leonard D N, Guo W, Qu J. Understanding tribofilm formation mechanisms in ionic liquid lubrication. Sci Rep 7: 8426 (2017)
[117]
Otero I, López E R, Reichelt M, Fernández J. Tribo-chemical reactions of anion in pyrrolidinium salts for steel–steel contact. Tribol Int 77: 160–170 (2014)
[118]
Zhou Y, Dyck J, Graham T W, Luo H M, Leonard D N, Qu J. Ionic liquids composed of phosphonium cations and organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate anions as lubricant antiwear additives. Langmuir 30(44): 13301–13311 (2014)
[119]
Minami I, Inada T, Sasaki R, Nanao H. Tribo-chemistry of phosphonium-derived ionic liquids. Tribol Lett 40(2): 225–235 (2010)
[120]
Kamimura H, Chiba T, Watanabe N, Kubo T, Nanao H, Minami I, Mori S. Effects of carboxylic acids on friction and wear reducing properties for alkylmethylimidazolium derived ionic liquids. Tribol Online 1(2): 40–43 (2006)
[121]
Minami I, Kamimura H, Mori S. Thermo-oxidative stability of ionic liquids as lubricating fluids. J Synth Lubr 24(3): 135–147 (2007)
[122]
Huang G W, Fan S K, Ba Z W, Cai M R, Qiao D. Insight into the lubricating mechanism for alkylimidazolium phosphate ionic liquids with different alkyl chain length. Tribol Int 140: 105886 (2019)
[123]
Espinosa T, Jiménez M, Sanes J, Jiménez A E, Iglesias M, Bermúdez M D. Ultra-low friction with a protic ionic liquid boundary film at the water-lubricated sapphire–stainless steel interface. Tribol Lett 53(1): 1–9 (2014)
[124]
Li J J, Zhang C H, Ma L R, Liu Y H, Luo J B. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of acids and glycerol. Langmuir 29(1): 271–275 (2013)
[125]
Li J J, Zhang C H, Luo J B. Superlubricity behavior with phosphoric acid–water network induced by rubbing. Langmuir 27(15): 9413–9417 (2011)
[126]
Nevshupa R, Conte M, del Campo A, Roman E. Analysis of tribochemical decomposition of two imidazolium ionic liquids on Ti–6Al–4V through mechanically stimulated gas emission spectrometry. Tribol Int 102: 19–27 (2016)
[127]
Li Y, Zhang S W, Ding Q, Hu L T. Effect of cation nature on vacuum tribo-degradation and lubrication performances of two tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids. Tribol Int 150: 106360 (2020)
[128]
Kawada S, Watanabe S, Kondo Y, Tsuboi R, Sasaki S. Tribochemical reactions of ionic liquids under vacuum conditions. Tribol Lett 54(3): 309–315 (2014)
[129]
Sharma V, Gabler C, Doerr N, Aswath P B. Mechanism of tribofilm formation with P and S containing ionic liquids. Tribol Int 92: 353–364 (2015)
[130]
Qu J, Luo H M, Chi M F, Ma C, Blau P J, Dai S, Viola M B. Comparison of an oil-miscible ionic liquid and ZDDP as a lubricant anti-wear additive. Tribol Int 71: 88–97 (2014)
[131]
Qu J, Meyer H M III, Cai Z B, Ma C, Luo H M. Characterization of ZDDP and ionic liquid tribofilms on non-metallic coatings providing insights of tribofilm formation mechanisms. Wear 332–333: 1273–1285 (2015)
[132]
Sharma V, Doerr N, Aswath P B. Chemical–mechanical properties of tribofilms and their relationship to ionic liquid chemistry. RSC Adv 6(27): 22341–22356 (2016)
[133]
Guo W, Zhou Y, Sang X, Leonard D N, Qu J, Poplawsky J D. Atom probe tomography unveils formation mechanisms of wear-protective tribofilms by ZDDP, ionic liquid, and their combination. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(27): 23152–23163 (2017)
[134]
Zheng G L, Ding T M, Huang Y X, Zheng L, Ren T H. Fatty acid based phosphite ionic liquids as multifunctional lubricant additives in mineral oil and refined vegetable oil. Tribol Int 123: 316–324 (2018)
[135]
Totolin V, Pisarova L, Dörr N, Minami I. Tribochemistry and thermo-oxidative stability of halogen-free ionic liquids. RSC Adv 7(77): 48766–48776 (2017)
[136]
Ge X Y, Li J J, Zhang C H, Wang Z N, Luo J B. Superlubricity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid induced by tribochemical reactions. Langmuir 34(18): 5245–5252 (2018)
[137]
Qu J, Chi M F, Meyer H M III, Blau P J, Dai S, Luo H M. Nanostructure and composition of tribo-boundary films formed in ionic liquid lubrication. Tribol Lett 43(2): 205–211 (2011)
[138]
Chen Y, Renner P, Liang H. Dispersion of nanoparticles in lubricating oil: A critical review. Lubricants 7(1): 7 (2019)
[139]
Bakunin V N, Suslov A Y, Kuzmina G N, Parenago O P, Topchiev A V. Synthesis and application of inorganic nanoparticles as lubricant components—A review. J Nanoparticle Res 6(2): 273–284 (2004)
[140]
Ghaednia H, Jackson R L. The effect of nanoparticles on the real area of contact, friction, and wear. J Tribol 135(4): 041603 (2013)
[141]
Ghaednia H, Babaei H, Jackson R L, Bozack M J, Khodadadi J M. The effect of nanoparticles on thin film elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. Appl Phys Lett 103(26): 263111 (2013)
[142]
Peña-Parás L, Taha-Tijerina J, Garza L, Maldonado-Cortés D, Michalczewski R, Lapray C. Effect of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticle additives on the tribological behavior of fully formulated oils. Wear 332–333: 1256–1261 (2015)
[143]
Peng D X, Chen C H, Kang Y, Chang Y P, Chang S Y. Size effects of SiO2 nanoparticles as oil additives on tribology of lubricant. Ind Lubr Tribol 62(2): 111–120 (2010)
[144]
Alves S M, Mello V S, Faria E A, Camargo A P P. Nanolubricants developed from tiny CuO nanoparticles. Tribol Int 100: 263–271 (2016)
[145]
Battez A H, González R, Viesca J L, Fernández J E, Díaz Fernández J M, Machado A, Chou R, Riba J. CuO, ZrO2 and ZnO nanoparticles as antiwear additive in oil lubricants. Wear 265(3–4): 422–428 (2008)
[146]
Kato H, Komai K. Tribofilm formation and mild wear by tribo-sintering of nanometer-sized oxide particles on rubbing steel surfaces. Wear 262(1–2): 36–41 (2007)
[147]
Fan X F, Li G T, Guo Y X, Zhang L G, Xu Y K, Zhao F Y, Zhang G. Role of reinforcement types and silica nanoparticles on tribofilm growth at PTFE–steel interface. Tribol Int 143: 106035 (2020)
[148]
Dassenoy F, Jenei I Z, Pavan S, Galipaud J, Thersleff T, Wieber S, Hagemann M, Ness D. Performance and lubrication mechanism of new TiO2 nanoparticle-based high-performance lubricant additives. Tribol Trans 64(2): 325–340 (2021)
[149]
Gao C P, Wang Y M, Xiang L H, Hu D W, Pan Z D. Tribochemical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with hexagonal morphology in lubricating oil. J Chin Ceram Soc 41(10): 1339–1346 (2013) (in Chinese)
[150]
He X L, Chen Y Y, Zhao H J, Sun H M, Lu X C, Liang H. Y2O3 nanosheets as slurry abrasives for chemical–mechanical planarization of copper. Friction 1(4): 327–332 (2013)
[151]
Joo S, Liang H. In situ characterization of triboelectrochemical effects on topography of patterned copper surfaces. J Electron Mater 42(6): 979–987 (2013)
[152]
Xu W H, Ma L, Chen Y, Liang H. Mechano-oxidation during cobalt polishing. Wear 416–417: 36–43 (2018)
[153]
Zhang P, He H T, Chen C, Xiao C, Chen L, Qian L M. Effect of abrasive particle size on tribochemical wear of monocrystalline silicon. Tribol Int 109: 222–228 (2017)
[154]
Chinas-Castillo F, Spikes H A. Film formation by colloidal overbased detergents in lubricated contacts. Tribol Trans 43(3): 357–366 (2000)
[155]
Chinas-Castillo F, Spikes H A. Mechanism of action of colloidal solid dispersions. J Tribol 125(3): 552–557 (2003)
[156]
Yu H L, Xu Y, Shi P J, Xu B S, Wang X L, Liu Q, Wang H M. Characterization and nano-mechanical properties of tribofilms using Cu nanoparticles as additives. Surf Coat Technol 203(1–2): 28–34 (2008)
[157]
Kumara C, Luo H M, Leonard D N, Meyer H M III, Qu J. Organic-modified silver nanoparticles as lubricant additives. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(42): 37227–37237 (2017)
[158]
Kumara C, Leonard D N, Meyer H M III, Luo H M, Armstrong B L, Qu J. Palladium nanoparticle-enabled ultrathick tribofilm with unique composition. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10(37): 31804–31812 (2018)
[159]
Liu R D, Wei X C, Tao D H, Zhao Y. Study of preparation and tribological properties of rare earth nanoparticles in lubricating oil. Tribol Int 43(5–6): 1082–1086 (2010)
[160]
Wu X H, Gong K L, Zhao G Q, Lou W J, Wang X B, Liu W M. Surface modification of MoS2 nanosheets as effective lubricant additives for reducing friction and wear in poly-α-olefin. Ind Eng Chem Res 57(23): 8105–8114 (2018)
[161]
Tannous J, Dassenoy F, Lahouij I, le Mogne T, Vacher B, Bruhács A, Tremel W. Understanding the tribochemical mechanisms of IF-MoS2 nanoparticles under boundary lubrication. Tribol Lett 41(1): 55–64 (2011)
[162]
Wu X H, Gong K L, Zhao G Q, Lou W J, Wang X B, Liu W M. MoS2/WS2 quantum dots as high-performance lubricant additive in polyalkylene glycol for steel/steel contact at elevated temperature. Adv Mater Interfaces 5(1): 1700859 (2018)
[163]
Kumari S, Gusain R, Kumar N, Khatri O P. PEG-mediated hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical microspheres of MoS2 nanosheets and their potential for lubrication application. J Ind Eng Chem 42: 87–94 (2016)
[164]
Ripoll M R, Tomala A, Gabler C, Dražić G, Pirker L, Remškar M. In situ tribochemical sulfurization of molybdenum oxide nanotubes. Nanoscale 10(7): 3281–3290 (2018)
[165]
Ripoll M R, Tomala A M, Pirker L, Remškar M. In-situ formation of MoS2 and WS2 tribofilms by the synergy between transition metal oxide nanoparticles and sulphur-containing oil additives. Tribol Lett 68(1): 41 (2020)
[166]
Ratoi M, Niste V B, Walker J, Zekonyte J. Mechanism of action of WS2 lubricant nanoadditives in high-pressure contacts. Tribol Lett 52(1): 81–91 (2013)
[167]
Wang B B, Hu E Z, Tu Z Q, David K D, Hu K H, Hu X G, Yang W, Guo J H, Cai W M, Qian W L, et al. Characterization and tribological properties of rice husk carbon nanoparticles Co-doped with sulfur and nitrogen. Appl Surf Sci 462: 944–954 (2018)
[168]
Zhang G Q, Xu Y, Xiang X Z, Zheng G L, Zeng X Q, Li Z P, Ren T H, Zhang Y D. Tribological performances of highly dispersed graphene oxide derivatives in vegetable oil. Tribol Int 126: 39–48 (2018)
[169]
Wang L B, Wang B, Wang X B, Liu W M. Tribological investigation of CaF2 nanocrystals as grease additives. Tribol Int 40(7): 1179–1185 (2007)
[170]
Dong J X, Hu Z S. A study of the anti-wear and friction-reducing properties of the lubricant additive, nanometer zinc borate. Tribol Int 31(5): 219–223 (1998)
[171]
Chen Y, Wang X Z, Clearfield A, Liang H. Anti-galling effects of α-zirconium phosphate nanoparticles as grease additives. J Tribol 141(3): 031801 (2019)
[172]
Dai W, Kheireddin B, Gao H, Kan Y W, Clearfield A, Liang H. Formation of anti-wear tribofilms via α-ZrP nanoplatelet as lubricant additives. Lubricants 4(3): 28 (2016)
[173]
He X L, Xiao H P, Choi H, Díaz A, Mosby B, Clearfield A, Liang H. α-zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets as lubricant additives. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects 452: 32–38 (2014)
[174]
Zhang R H, Xiong L P, Pu J B, Lu Z B, Zhang G G, He Z Y. Interface-sliding-induced graphene quantum dots transferring to fullerene-like quantum dots and their extraordinary tribological behavior. Adv Mater Interfaces 6(24): 1901386 (2019)
[175]
Zhang M, Wang X B, Fu X S, Xia Y Q. Performance and anti-wear mechanism of CaCO3 nanoparticles as a green additive in poly-alpha-olefin. Tribol Int 42(7): 1029–1039 (2009)
[176]
Liu W M, Chen S. An investigation of the tribological behaviour of surface-modified ZnS nanoparticles in liquid paraffin. Wear 238(2): 120–124 (2000)
[177]
Berman D, Mutyala K C, Srinivasan S, Sankaranarayanan S K R S, Erdemir A, Shevchenko E V, Sumant A V. Iron-nanoparticle driven tribochemistry leading to superlubric sliding interfaces. Adv Mater Interfaces 6(23): 1901416 (2019)
[178]
Berman D, Narayanan B, Cherukara M J, Sankaranarayanan S K R S, Erdemir A, Zinovev A, Sumant A V. Operando tribochemical formation of onion-like-carbon leads to macroscale superlubricity. Nat Commun 9(1): 1164 (2018)
[179]
Berman D, Deshmukh S A, Sankaranarayanan S K R S, Erdemir A, Sumant A V. Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation. Science 348(6239): 1118–1122 (2015)
[180]
Morina A, Neville A, Priest M, Green J H. ZDDP and MoDTC interactions in boundary lubrication—The effect of temperature and ZDDP/MoDTC ratio. Tribol Int 39(12): 1545–1557 (2006)
[181]
Kasrai M, Cutler J N, Gore K, Canning G, Bancroft G M, Tan K H. The chemistry of antiwear films generated by the combination of ZDDP and MoDTC examined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Tribol Trans 41(1): 69–77 (1998)
[182]
Unnikrishnan R, Jain M C, Harinarayan A K, Mehta A K. Additive–additive interaction: An XPS study of the effect of ZDDP on the AW/EP characteristics of molybdenum based additives. Wear 252(3–4): 240–249 (2002)
[183]
Qu J, Barnhill W C, Luo H M, Meyer H M III, Leonard D N, Landauer A K, Kheireddin B, Gao H, Papke B L, Dai S. Synergistic effects between phosphonium–alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as lubricant additives. Adv Mater 27(32): 4767–4774 (2015)
[184]
Zhang Y X, Cai T, Shang W J, Sun L W, Liu D, Tong D Y, Liu S G. Environmental friendly polyisobutylene-based ionic liquid containing chelated orthoborate as lubricant additive: Synthesis, tribological properties and synergistic interactions with ZDDP in hydrocarbon oils. Tribol Int 115: 297–306 (2017)
[185]
Zhou Y, Weber J, Viola M B, Qu J. Is more always better? Tribofilm evolution and tribological behavior impacted by the concentration of ZDDP, ionic liquid, and ZDDP–ionic liquid combination. Wear 432–433: 202951 (2019)
[186]
Yang S Y, Zhang D T, Wong J S S, Cai M R. Interactions between ZDDP and an oil-soluble ionic liquid additive. Tribol Int 158: 106938 (2021)
[187]
Costello M T, Urrego R A. Study of surface films of the ZDDP and the MoDTC with crystalline and amorphous overbased calcium sulfonates by XPS. Tribol Trans 50(2): 217–226 (2007)
[188]
Ramakumar S S V, Aggarwal N, Rao A M, Sarpal A S, Srivastava S P, Bhatnagar A K. Studies on additive–additive interactions: Effects of dispersant and antioxidant additives on the synergistic combination of overbased sulphonate and ZDDP. Lubr Sci 7(1): 25–38 (1994)
[189]
Wu N, Hu N N, Wu J H, Zhou G B. Tribology properties of synthesized multiscale lamellar WS2 and their synergistic effect with anti-wear agent ZDDP. Appl Sci 10(1): 115 (2019)
[190]
Aldana P U, Vacher B, le Mogne T, Belin M, Thiebaut B, Dassenoy F. Action mechanism of WS2 nanoparticles with ZDDP additive in boundary lubrication regime. Tribol Lett 56(2): 249–258 (2014)
Friction
Pages 489-512
Cite this article:
CHEN Y, RENNER P, LIANG H. A review of current understanding in tribochemical reactions involving lubricant additives. Friction, 2023, 11(4): 489-512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-022-0637-2

1229

Views

143

Downloads

29

Crossref

29

Web of Science

29

Scopus

1

CSCD

Altmetrics

Received: 03 April 2021
Revised: 25 November 2021
Accepted: 21 April 2022
Published: 18 November 2022
© The author(s) 2022.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Return