Journal Home > Volume 9 , Issue 5

Using nanoadditives in lubricants is one of the most effective ways to control friction and wear, which is of great significance for energy conservation, emission reduction, and environmental protection. With the scientific and technological development, great advances have been made in nanolubricant additives in the scientific research and industrial applications. This review summarizes the categories of nanolubricant additives and illustrates the tribological properties of these additives. Based on the component elements of nanomaterials, nanolubricant additives can be divided into three types: nanometal-based, nanocarbon-based, and nanocomposite-based additives. The dispersion stabilities of additives in lubricants are also discussed in the review systematically. Various affecting factors and effective dispersion methods have been investigated in detail. Moreover, the review summarizes the lubrication mechanisms of nanolubricant additives including tribofilm formation, micro-bearing effect, self-repair performance, and synergistic effect. In addition, the challenges and prospects of nanolubricant additives are proposed, which guides the design and synthesis of novel additives with significant lubrication and antiwear properties in the future.

Full text
About this article

Nanolubricant additives: A review

Show Author's information Jun ZHAO1,2,3Yiyao HUANG1Yongyong HE2( )Yijun SHI3
College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, Sweden


Using nanoadditives in lubricants is one of the most effective ways to control friction and wear, which is of great significance for energy conservation, emission reduction, and environmental protection. With the scientific and technological development, great advances have been made in nanolubricant additives in the scientific research and industrial applications. This review summarizes the categories of nanolubricant additives and illustrates the tribological properties of these additives. Based on the component elements of nanomaterials, nanolubricant additives can be divided into three types: nanometal-based, nanocarbon-based, and nanocomposite-based additives. The dispersion stabilities of additives in lubricants are also discussed in the review systematically. Various affecting factors and effective dispersion methods have been investigated in detail. Moreover, the review summarizes the lubrication mechanisms of nanolubricant additives including tribofilm formation, micro-bearing effect, self-repair performance, and synergistic effect. In addition, the challenges and prospects of nanolubricant additives are proposed, which guides the design and synthesis of novel additives with significant lubrication and antiwear properties in the future.

Keywords: lubrication mechanism, tribological properties, nanolubricant additive, dispersion stability


Holmberg K, Erdemir A. The impact of tribology on energy use and CO2 emission globally and in combustion engine and electric cars. Tribol Int 135: 389-396 (2019)
He F, Xie G X, Luo J B. Electrical bearing failures in electric vehicles. Friction 8(1): 4-28 (2020)
Holmberg K, Erdemir A. Influence of tribology on global energy consumption, costs and emissions. Friction 5(3): 263-284 (2017)
Holmberg K, Andersson P, Nylund N-O, Mäkelä K, Erdemir A. Global energy consumption due to friction in trucks and buses. Tribol Int 78: 94-114 (2014)
Luo J B, Zhou X. Superlubricitive engineering—Future industry nearly getting rid of wear and frictional energy consumption. Friction 8(4): 643-665 (2020)
Wang W, He Y Y, Zhao J, Mao J Y, Hu Y T, Luo J B. Optimization of groove texture profile to improve hydrodynamic lubrication performance: Theory and experiments. Friction 8(1): 83-94 (2020)
Xiao J K, Wu Y Q, Zhang W, Chen J, Zhang C. Friction of metal-matrix self-lubricating composites: Relationships among lubricant content, lubricating film coverage, and friction coefficient. Friction 8(3): 517-530 (2020)
Braceras I, Ibáñez I, Dominguez-Meister S, Velasco X, Brizuela M, Garmendia I. Electro-tribological properties of diamond like carbon coatings. Friction 8(2): 451-461 (2020)
Hwang Y H, Myung B S, Kim H J. Study on frictional behavior of carbon nanotube thin films with respect to surface condition. Friction 6(4): 432-442 (2018)
Myshkin N, Kovalev A. Adhesion and surface forces in polymer tribology—A review. Friction 6(2): 143-155 (2018)
Wang Z Q, Ni J, Gao D R. Combined effect of the use of carbon fiber and seawater and the molecular structure on the tribological behavior of polymer materials. Friction 6(2): 183-194 (2018)
Hua J, Björling M, Larsson o, Shi Y J. Controllable Friction of Green Ionic Liquids via Environmental Humidity. Adv Eng Mater 22(5): 1901253 (2020)
Spikes H. Low- and zero-sulphated ash, phosphorus and sulphur anti-wear additives for engine oils. Lubricat Sci 20(2): 103-136 (2008)
Huang G W, Yu Q L, Ma Z F, Cai M R, Zhou F, Liu W M. Oil-soluble ionic liquids as antiwear and extreme pressure additives in poly-α-olefin for steel/steel contacts. Friction 7(1): 18-31 (2019)
Jiang C, Li W M, Nian J Y, Lou W J, Wang X B. Tribological evaluation of environmentally friendly ionic liquids derived from renewable biomaterials. Friction 6(2): 208-218 (2018)
Uflyand I E, Zhinzhilo V A, Burlakova V E. Metal-containing nanomaterials as lubricant additives: State-of-the-art and future development. Friction 7(2): 93-116 (2019)
Hisakado T, Tsukizoe T, Yoshikawa H. Lubrication Mechanism of Solid Lubricants in Oils. J Lubricat Technol 105(2): 245-252 (1983)
Zhou J F, Yang J J, Zhang Z J, Liu W M, Xue Q J. Study on the structure and tribological properties of surface-modified Cu nanoparticles. Mater Res Bull 34(9): 1361-1367 (1999)
Tarasov S, Kolubaev A, Belyaev S, Lerner M, Tepper F. Study of friction reduction by nanocopper additives to motor oil. Wear 252(1-2): 63-69 (2002)
Zhao Y B, Zhang Z J, Dang H X. Synthesis of In-Sn alloy nanoparticles by a solution dispersion method. Mater Chem 14(3): 299-302 (2004)
Ma J Q, Mo Y F, Bai M W. Effect of Ag nanoparticles additive on the tribological behavior of multialkylated cyclopentanes (MACs). Wear 266 (7-8): 627-631 (2009)
Yu H L, Xu Y, Shi P J, Xu B S, Wang X L, Liu Q. Tribological properties and lubricating mechanisms of Cu nanoparticles in lubricant. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 18(3): 636-641 (2008)
Wang X L, Yin Y.L., Zhang G.N., Wang W Y, Zhao K K. Study on Antiwear and Repairing Performances about Mass of Nano-copper Lubricating Additives to 45 Steel. Phys Procedia 50: 466-472 (2013)
Ghaednia H, Hossain M S, Jackson R L. Tribological Performance of Silver Nanoparticle-Enhanced Polyethylene Glycol Lubricants. Tribol Trans 59(4): 585-592 (2016)
Padgurskas J, Rukuiza R, Prosyčevas I, Kreivaitis R. Tribological properties of lubricant additives of Fe, Cu and Co nanoparticles. Tribol Int 60: 224-232 (2013)
Zhang S W, Hu L T, Feng D P, Wang H Z. Anti-wear and friction-reduction mechanism of Sn and Fe nanoparticles as additives of multialkylated cyclopentanes under vacuum condition. Vacuum 87: 75-80 (2013)
Sánchez-López J C, Abad M D, Kolodziejczyk L, Guerrero E, Fernández A. Surface-modified Pd and Au nanoparticles for anti-wear applications. Tribol Int 44(6): 720-726 (2011)
Abad M D, Sánchez-López J C. Tribological properties of surface-modified Pd nanoparticles for electrical contacts. Wear 297(1-2): 943-951 (2013)
Chou R, Battez A H, Cabello J J, Viesca J L, Osorio A, Sagastume A. Tribological behavior of polyalphaolefin with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Tribol Int 43(12): 2327-2332 (2010)
Ghaednia H, Jackson R L, Khodadadi J M. Experimental analysis of stable CuO nanoparticle enhanced lubricants. J Exp Nanosci 10(1): 1-18 (2013)
Thottackkad M V, Perikinalil R K, Kumarapillai P N. Experimental evaluation on the tribological properties of coconut oil by the addition of CuO nanoparticles. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 13(1): 111-116 (2012)
Prakash E, Siva K K, Muthu K K. Experimental studies on vibration characteristics on ball bearing operated with copper oxide nano particle mixed lubricant. Int J En Technol 5(5): 4127-4130 (2013)
Xue W G, Zhao Z H, Wang P, Jin Z L, Xu X H, Zhou X G. Performance study of zinc oxide nanoparticles for lubricant oil. Adv Mater Res 1118: 195-204 (2015)
Harta I C, Owens K, De Jesús Santiago S, Schall D, Thrush S, Barber G, Zou Q. Tribological Performance of ZnO-oil Nanofluids at Elevated Temperatures. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 6(1): 126-131 (2013)
Luo T, Wei X W, Huang X, Huang L, Yang F. Tribological properties of Al2O3 nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives. Ceram Int 40(5): 7143-7149 (2014)
Chang H, Li Z Y, Kao M J, Huang K D, Wu H M. Tribological property of TiO2 nanolubricant on piston and cylinder surfaces. J Alloys Compd 495(2): 481-484 (2010)
Arumugam S, Sriram G. Preliminary Study of nano- and microscale TiO2 additives on tribological behavior of chemically modified rapeseed oil. Tribol Trans 56(5): 797-805 (2013)
Sharma A K, Tiwari A K, Singh R K, Dixit A R. Tribological Investigation of TiO2 nanoparticle based cutting fluid in machining under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). Mater Today Proc 3(6): 2155-2162 (2016)
Ma S Y, Zheng S H, Cao D X, Guo H N. Anti-wear and friction performance of ZrO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Particuology 8(5): 468-472 (2010)
Al-Samarai R A, Al-Douri Y, Haftirman, Ahmad K R. Tribological properties of WS2 nanoparticles lubricants on aluminum-silicon alloy and carbon steels. Walailak J Sci Technol 10(3): 277-287 (2013)
Rengifo S, Zhang C, Harimkar S, Boesl B, Agarwal A. Effect of WS2 addition on tribological behavior of aluminum at room and elevated temperatures. Tribol Lett 65(3): 24 (2017)
Zhang X H, Xu H X, Wang J T, Ye X, Lei W N, Xue M Q, Tang H, Li C S. Synthesis of ultrathin WS2 nanosheets and their tribological properties as lubricant additives. Nanoscale Res Lett 11(1): 442 (2016)
Nallasamy P, Saravanakumar N, Nagendran S, Suriya E M, Yashwant D. Tribological investigations on MoS2-based nanolubricant for machine tool slideways. Proc Inst Mech Eng J J Eng Tribol 229(5): 559-567 (2014)
Yi M R, Zhang C H. The synthesis of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets with enhanced tribological properties as oil additives. RSC Adv 8(17): 9564-9573 (2018)
Zhang B M, Sun J L. Tribological performances of multilayer-MoS2 nanoparticles in water-based lubricating fluid. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 182: 012023 (2017)
Ky D L C, Tran Khac B-C, Le C T, Kim Y S, Chung K-H. Friction characteristics of mechanically exfoliated and CVD-grown single-layer MoS2. Friction 6(4): 395-406 (2017)
Chen L J, Zhu D Y. Preparation and tribological properties of unmodified and oleic acid-modified CuS nanorods as lubricating oil additives. Ceram Int 43(5): 4246-4251 (2017)
Wang L B, Gao Y P, Li Z Y, Zhou A G, Li P. Preparation and tribological properties of surface-modified ZnS nanoparticles. Lubricat Sci 27(4): 241-250 (2015)
Zhao F Y, Bai Z M, Fu Y, Zhao D, Yan C M. Tribological properties of serpentine, La(OH)3 and their composite particles as lubricant additives. Wear 288: 72-77 (2012)
Wang H D, Liu Y H, Chen Z, Wu B B, Xu S L, Luo J B. Layered double hydroxide nanoplatelets with excellent tribological properties under high contact pressure as water-based lubricant additives. Sci Rep 6: 22748 (2016)
Wang H D, Liu Y H, Guo F M, Sheng H P, Xia K L, Liu W R, Wen J G, Shi Y J, Erdemir A, Luo J B. Catalytically active oil-based lubricant additives enabled by calcining Ni-Al layered double hydroxides. J Phys Chem Lett 11(1): 113-120 (2020)
Zhang M, Wang X B, Fu X S, Xia Y Q. Performance and anti-wear mechanism of CaCO3 nanoparticles as a green additive in poly-alpha-olefin. Tribol Int 42(7): 1029-1039 (2009)
Zhang M, Wang X B, Liu W M. Tribological behavior of LaF3 nanoparticles as additives in poly-alpha-olefin. Ind Lubr Tribol 65(4): 226-235 (2013)
Hou X, He J, Yu L G, Li Z W, Zhang Z J, Zhang P Y. Preparation and tribological properties of fluorosilane surface-modified lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil. Appl Surf Sci 316: 515-523 (2014)
Li Z W, Hou X, Yu L G, Zhang Z J, Zhang P Y. Preparation of lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles surface-capped by tributyl phosphate and evaluation of their tribological properties as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin. Appl Surf Sci 292: 971-977 (2014)
He X L, Xiao H P, Choi H, Díaz A, Mosby B, Clearfield A, Liang H. α-Zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets as lubricant additives. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects 452: 32-38 (2014)
Li J S, Hao L F, Xu X H, Zhang L, Ren T H. Preparation, characterization and tribological evaluation of calcium borate nanoparticles as lubricant additives. Adv Mater Res 148-149: 1047-1056 (2010)
Huang Y, Han S, Liu S Z, Wang Y H, Li J S. Preparation and tribological properties of surface-modified calcium borate nanoparticles as additive in lubricating oil. Ind Lubr Tribol 66 (1): 143-150 (2014)
Lv Y X, Zhao X C, Cheng J W, Liu Y, Li H. The study on the reducing friction and anti-wear performance of zinc phosphate nanoparticles as lubrication additives. Mater Sci Forum 749: 211-216 (2013)
Peng D X, Kang Y, Chen C H, Chen S K, Shu F C. The tribological behavior of modified diamond nanoparticles in liquid paraffin. Ind Lubr Tribol 61(4): 213-219 (2009)
Peng D X, Kang Y, Hwang R M, Shyr S S, Chang Y P. Tribological properties of diamond and SiO2 nanoparticles added in paraffin. Tribol Int 42(6): 911-917 (2009)
Ku B C, Han Y C, Lee J E, Lee J K, Park S H, Hwang Y J. Tribological effects of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles added in mineral lubricants according to its viscosity. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 11(4): 607-611 (2010)
Liu H T, Ji H M, Hong H P, Hammad Y. Tribological properties of carbon nanotube grease. Ind Lubr Tribol 66(5): 579-583 (2014)
Bhaumik S, Prabhu S, Singh K J. Analysis of tribological behavior of carbon nanotube based industrial mineral gear oil 250 cSt viscosity. Adv Tribol 2014: 341365 (2014)
Mao J Y, Chen G Y, Zhao J, He Y Y, Luo J B. An investigation on the tribological behaviors of steel/copper and steel/steel friction pairs via lubrication with a graphene additive. Friction 9(2): 228-238 (2021)
Xie H M, Jiang B, Dai J H, Peng C, Li C X, Li Q, Pan F S. Tribological behaviors of graphene and graphene oxide as water-based lubricant additives for magnesium alloy/steel contacts. Materials 11(2): 206 (2018)
Yang J, Xia Y F, Song H J, Chen B B, Zhang Z Z. Synthesis of the liquid-like graphene with excellent tribological properties. Tribol Int 105: 118-124 (2017)
Kumar D M, Bijwe J, Ramakumar S S V. PTFE based nano-lubricants. Wear 306 (1-2): 80-88 (2013)
Kumar N, Saini V, Bijwe J. Performance properties of lithium greases with PTFE particles as additive: Controlling parameter-size or shape? Tribol Int 148: 106302 (2020)
Wang J M, Wang J H, Li C S, Zhao G Q, Wang X B. Tribological performance of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulphonate) as additive in water-glycol hydraulic fluid. Lubricat Sci 24(3): 140-151 (2012)
Tu T T, Wang W X, Wan Y, Pu J B. Tribology properties of the aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Mater Sci 4 (3): 103-110 (2014)
Zhang C L, Zhang S M, Yu L G, Zhang Z J, Wu Z S, Zhang P Y. Preparation and tribological properties of water-soluble copper/silica nanocomposite as a water-based lubricant additive. Appl Surf Sci 259: 824-830 (2012)
Luo T, Wei X W, Zhao H Y, Cai G Y, Zheng X Y. Tribology properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites as lubricant additives. Ceram Int 40(7): 10103-10109 (2014)
Jia X H, Huang J, Li Y, Yang J, Song H J. Monodisperse Cu nanoparticles @MoS2 nanosheets as a lubricant additive for improved tribological properties. Appl Surf Sci 494: 430-439 (2019)
Song W, Yan J C, Ji H B. Fabrication of GNS/MoS2 composite with different morphology and its tribological performance as a lubricant additive. Appl Surf Sci 469: 226-235 (2019)
Song H J, Jia X H, Li N, Yang X F, Tang H. Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 nanorod/graphene oxide composites and their tribological properties. J Mater Chem 22(3): 895-902 (2012)
Zhang M S, Chen B B, Tang H, Tang G G, Li C S, Chen L, Zhang H M, Zhang Q. Hydrothermal synthesis and tribological properties of FeS2 (pyrite)/reduced graphene oxide heterojunction. RSC Adv 5(2): 1417-1423 (2015)
Meng Y, Su F H, Chen Y Z. Supercritical fluid synthesis and tribological applications of silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene in engine oil nanofluid. Sci Rep 6: 31246 (2016)
Wang L, Gong P W, Li W, Luo T, Cao B Q. Mono-dispersed Ag/Graphene nanocomposite as lubricant additive to reduce friction and wear. Tribol Int 146: 106228 (2020)
Meng Y, Su F H, Chen Y Z. Synthesis of nano-Cu/graphene oxide composites by supercritical CO2-assisted deposition as a novel material for reducing friction and wear. Chem Eng J 281: 11-19 (2015)
Zhao J, Li Y R, He Y Y, Luo J B. In Situ Green Synthesis of the New Sandwichlike Nanostructure of Mn3O4/Graphene as Lubricant Additives. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 11(40): 36931-36938 (2019)
Pan Z H, Wang T C, Chen L, Idziak S, Huang Z H, Zhao B X. Effects of rare earth oxide additive on surface and tribological properties of polyimide composites. Appl Surf Sci 416: 536-546 (2017)
Sharma A K, Katiyar J K, Bhaumik S, Roy S. Influence of alumina/MWCNT hybrid nanoparticle additives on tribological properties of lubricants in turning operations. Friction 7(2): 153-168 (2018)
Wu J, Huang X Z, Berglund K, Lu X H, Feng X, Larsson R, Shi Y J. CuO nanosheets produced in graphene oxide solution: An excellent anti-wear additive for self-lubricating polymer composites. Compos Sci Technol 162: 86-92 (2018)
An V, Irtegov Y, Izarra C d. Study of Tribological properties of nanolamellar WS2 and MoS2 as additives to lubricants. J Nanomater 2014: 865839 (2014)
Yi M R, Zhang C H. The synthesis of MoS2 particles with different morphologies for tribological applications. Tribol Int 116: 285-294 (2017)
Hu K H, Hu X G, Xu Y F, Huang F, Liu J S. The Effect of morphology on the tribological properties of MoS2 in liquid paraffin. Tribol Lett 40(1): 155-165 (2010)
Chen Z, Liu X W, Liu Y H, Gunsel S, Luo J B. Ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets with superior extreme pressure property as boundary lubricants. Sci Rep 5: 12869 (2015)
Yang H M, Li J S, Zeng X Q. Tribological behavior of nanocarbon materials with different dimensions in aqueous systems. Friction 8(1): 29-46 (2020)
Tu Z Q, Hu E Z, Wang B B, David K D, Seeger P, Moneke M, Stengler R, Hu K H, Hu X G. Tribological behaviors of Ni-modified citric acid carbon quantum dot particles as a green additive in polyethylene glycol. Friction 8(1): 182-197 (2019)
Kim H S, Park J W, Park S M, Lee J S, Lee Y Z. Tribological characteristics of paraffin liquid with nanodiamond based on the scuffing life and wear amount. Wear 301(1-2): 763-767 (2013)
Joly-Pottuz L, Vacher B, Ohmae N, Martin J M, Epicier T. Anti-wear and friction reducing mechanisms of carbon nano-onions as lubricant additives. Tribol Lett 30(1): 69-80 (2008)
Liu L N, Fang Z P, Gu A J, Guo Z H. Lubrication effect of the paraffin oil filled with functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for bismaleimide resin. Tribol Lett 42(1): 59-65 (2011)
Zhang L L, Pu J B, Wang L P, Xue Q J. Frictional dependence of graphene and carbon nanotube in diamond-like carbon/ionic liquids hybrid films in vacuum. Carbon 80: 734-745 (2014)
Berman D, Erdemir A, Sumant A V. Few layer graphene to reduce wear and friction on sliding steel surfaces. Carbon 54: 454-459 (2013)
Chen G Y, Zhao J, Chen K, Liu S Y, Zhang M Y, He Y Y, Luo J B. Ultrastable lubricating properties of robust self-repairing tribofilms enabled by in situ-assembled polydopamine nanoparticles. Langmuir 36(4): 852-861 (2020)
Washizu H, Kajita S, Tohyama M, Ohmori T, Nishino N, Teranishi H, Suzuki A. Mechanism of ultra low friction of multilayer graphene studied by coarse-grained molecular simulation. Faraday Discuss 156: 279-291, 293-309 (2012)
Berman D, Deshmukh S A, Sankaranarayanan S K R S, Erdemir A, Sumant A V. Extraordinary macroscale wear resistance of one atom thick graphene layer. Adv Funct Mater 24(42): 6640-6646 (2014)
Liu L C, Zhou M, Jin L, Li L C, Mo Y T, Su G S, Li X, Zhu H W, Tian Y. Recent advances in friction and lubrication of graphene and other 2D materials: Mechanisms and applications. Friction 7(3): 199-216 (2019)
Feng X F, Kwon S, Park J Y, Salmeron M. Superlubric sliding of graphene nanoflakes on graphene. ACS Nano 7(2): 1718-1724 (2013)
Eswaraiah V, Sankaranarayanan V, Ramaprabhu S. Graphene-based engine oil nanofluids for tribological applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3(11): 4221-4227 (2011)
Mungse H P, Khatri O P. Chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide as a novel material for reduction of friction and wear. J Phys Chem 118(26): 14394-14402 (2014)
Schlüter B, Mülhaupt R, Kailer A. Synthesis and tribological characterization of stable dispersions of thermally reduced graphite oxide. Tribol Lett 53(1): 353-363 (2013)
Zhao J, Li Y R, Wang Y F, Mao J Y, He Y Y, Luo J B. Mild thermal reduction of graphene oxide as a lubrication additive for friction and wear reduction. RSC Adv 7(3): 1766-1770 (2017)
Zhao J, Li Y R, Mao J Y, He Y Y, Luo J B. Synthesis of thermally reduced graphite oxide in sulfuric acid and its application as an efficient lubrication additive. Tribol Int 116: 303-309 (2017)
Li X F, Peng S X. Tribology of poly(vinyl alcohol)-carbon nanotube composites. In Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Electronic & Mechanical Engineering and Information Technology, Harbin, China, 2011: 1431-1434.
Yu B, Liu Z L, Zhou F, Liu W M, Liang Y M. A novel lubricant additive based on carbon nanotubes for ionic liquids. Mater Lett 62(17-18): 2967-2969 (2008)
Sarker D. Pharmaceutical emulsions: a drug developer's toolbag. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013
Choi Y, Hwang Y, Park M, Lee J, Choi C, Jung M, Oh J, Lee J E. Investigation of anti-wear and extreme pressure properties of nano-lubricant using graphite and Ag nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 11(1): 560-565 (2011)
Choi C, Yoo H S, Oh J M. Preparation and heat transfer properties of nanoparticle-in-transformer oil dispersions as advanced energy-efficient coolants. Curr Appl Phys 8(6): 710-712 (2008)
Xing M B, Wang R X. Nanorefrigeration oil formed by C60, CNTs and mineral oil for air conditioner. Adv Mater Res 629: 247-254 (2012)
Kotia A, Ghosh S K. Experimental analysis for rheological properties of aluminium oxide (Al2O3)/gear oil (SAE EP-90) nanolubricant used in HEMM. Ind Lubr Tribol 67(6): 600-605 (2015)
Zhu H T, Li C J, Wu D X, Zhang C Y, Yin Y S. Preparation, characterization, viscosity and thermal conductivity of CaCO3 aqueous nanofluids. Sci China Technol Sci 53(2): 360-368 (2010)
Mosleh M, Atnafu N D, Belk J H, Nobles O M. Modification of sheet metal forming fluids with dispersed nanoparticles for improved lubrication. Wear 267(5-8): 1220-1225 (2009)
Sharif M Z, Azmi W H, Redhwan A A M, Mamat R, Yusof T M. Performance analysis of SiO2 /PAG nanolubricant in automotive air conditioning system. Int J Refriger 75: 204-216 (2017)
Ettefaghi E-o-l, Ahmadi H, Rashidi A, Mohtasebi S, Alaei M. Experimental evaluation of engine oil properties containing copper oxide nanoparticles as a nanoadditive. Int J Ind Chem 4(1): 28-33 (2013)
Alazemi A A, Dysart A D, Phuah X L, Pol V G, Sadeghi F. MoS2 nanolayer coated carbon spheres as an oil additive for enhanced tribological performance. Carbon 110: 367-377 (2016)
Wu X H, Gong K L, Zhao G Q, Lou W J, Wang X B, Liu W M. MoS2/WS2 quantum dots as high-performance lubricant additive in polyalkylene glycol for steel/steel contact at elevated temperature. Adv Mater Interfaces 5(1): 1700859 (2017)
Jatti V S, Singh T P. Copper oxide nano-particles as friction-reduction and anti-wear additives in lubricating oil. J Mech Sci Technol 29(2): 793-798 (2015)
Wan Q M, Jin Y, Sun P C, Ding Y L. Tribological behaviour of a lubricant oil containing boron nitride nanoparticles. Procedia Eng 102: 1038-1045 (2015)
Fontes D H, Ribatski G, Bandarra Filho E P. Experimental evaluation of thermal conductivity, viscosity and breakdown voltage AC of nanofluids of carbon nanotubes and diamond in transformer oil. Diam Relat Mater 58: 115-121 (2015)
Fedele L, Colla L, Bobbo S, Barison S, Agresti F. Experimental stability analysis of different waterbased nanofluids. Nanoscale Res Lett 6(1): 300 (2011)
Kole M, Dey T K. Effect of aggregation on the viscosity of copper oxide-gear oil nanofluids. Int J Therm Sci 50(9): 1741-1747 (2011)
Zheng D, Cai Z B, Shen M X, Li Z Y, Zhu M H. Investigation of the tribology behaviour of the graphene nanosheets as oil additives on textured alloy cast iron surface. Appl Surf Sci 387: 66-75 (2016)
Lou J F, Zhang H, Wang R X. Experimental investigation of graphite nanolubricant used in a domestic refrigerator. Adv Mech Eng 7(2) (2015)
Jiang Z Q, Zhang Y J, Yang G B, Yang K P, Zhang S M, Yu L G, Zhang P Y. Tribological properties of oleylamine-modified ultrathin WS2 nanosheets as the additive in polyalpha olefin over a wide temperature range. Tribol Lett 61(3): 24 (2016)
Kumara C, Luo H, Leonard D N, Meyer H M, Qu J. Organic-modified silver nanoparticles as lubricant additives. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(42): 37227-37237 (2017)
Peng D X, Chen C H, Kang Y, Chang Y P, Chang S Y. Size effects of SiO2 nanoparticles as oil additives on tribology of lubricant. Ind Lubr Tribol 62(2): 111-120 (2010)
Wang Z Q, Ren R R, Song H J, Jia X H. Improved tribological properties of the synthesized copper/carbon nanotube nanocomposites for rapeseed oil-based additives. Appl Surf Sci 428: 630-639 (2018)
Wu X H, Gong K L, Zhao G Q, Lou W J, Wang X B, Liu W M. Surface modification of MoS2 nanosheets as effective lubricant additives for reducing friction and wear in poly-α-olefin. Ind Eng Chem Res 57(23): 8105-8114 (2018)
Dou X, Koltonow A R, He X, Jang H D, Wang Q, Chung Y W, Huang J. Self-dispersed crumpled graphene balls in oil for friction and wear reduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113(6): 1528-1533 (2016)
Li Y R, Zhao J, Tang C, He Y Y, Wang Y F, Chen J, Mao J Y, Zhou Q Q, Wang B Y, Wei F, Luo J B, Shi G Q. Highly exfoliated reduced graphite oxide powders as efficient lubricant oil additives. Adv Mater Interfaces 3(22): 1600700 (2016)
Zhao J, Huang Y Y, Li Y R, Gao T, Dou Z, Mao J Y, Wang H D, He Y Y, Li S X, Luo J B. Superhigh-exfoliation graphene with a unique two-dimensional (2D) microstructure for lubrication application. Appl Surf Sci 513: 145608 (2020)
Bai G Y, Wang J Q, Yang Z G, Wang H G, Wang Z F, Yang S R. Preparation of a highly effective lubricating oil additive-Ceria/graphene composite. RSC Adv. 4(87): 47096-47105 (2014)
Ren B J, Gao L, Xie B T, Li M J, Zhang S D, Zu g Q, Ran X. Tribological properties and anti-wear mechanism of ZnO@graphene core-shell nanoparticles as lubricant additives. Tribol Int 144: 106114 (2020)
Zheng D, Wu Y P, Li Z Y, Cai Z B. Tribological properties of WS2/graphene nanocomposites as lubricating oil additives. RSC Adv 7(23): 14060-14068 (2017)
Clark M D, Subramanian S, Krishnamoorti R. Understanding surfactant aided aqueous dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Colloid Interface Sci 354(1): 144-151 (2011)
Yu W, Xie H Q. A review on nanofluids: Preparation, stability mechanisms, and applications. J Nanomater 2012: 435873 (2012)
Ali M K A, Xianjun H, Elagouz A, Essa F A, Abdelkareem M A A. Minimizing of the boundary friction coefficient in automotive engines using Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 18(12): 377 (2016)
Ali M K A, Xianjun H, Mai L, Bicheng C, Turkson R F, Qingping C. Reducing frictional power losses and improving the scuffing resistance in automotive engines using hybrid nanomaterials as nano-lubricant additives. Wear 364-365: 270-281 (2016)
Huang H D, Tu J P, Gan L P, Li C Z. An investigation on tribological properties of graphite nanosheets as oil additive. Wear 261(2): 140-144 (2006)
Xiong X J, Zhang S M, Kang Y K, Yu L G, Yang G B, Zhang P Y. Preparation and evaluation of tribological properties of cu nanoparticles surface modified by tetradecyl hydroxamic Acid. Tribol Lett 46: 211-220 (2012)
Chen C S, Chen X H, Xu L S, Yang Z, Li W H. Modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with fatty acid and their tribological properties as lubricant additive. Carbon 43(8): 1660-1666 (2005)
Bourlinos A B, Gournis D, Petridis D, Szabo T s, Szeri A, De´ka´ny I. Graphite oxide: chemical reduction to graphite and surface modification with primary aliphatic amines and amino acids. Langmuir 19: 6050-6055 (2003)
Wang G X, Shen X P, Wang B, Yao J, Park J. Synthesis and characterisation of hydrophilic and organophilic graphene nanosheets. Carbon 47(5): 1359-1364 (2009)
Zhang W, Zhou M, Zhu H W, Tian Y, Wang K L, Wei J Q, Ji F, Li X, Li Z, Zhang P, Wu D H. Tribological properties of oleic acid-modified graphene as lubricant oil additives. J Phys D Appl Phys 44(20): 205303 (2011)
Han J S, Choi J Y, Yoo M, Lee C S. Synthesis, Dispersion, and tribological performance of alkyl-functionalized graphene oxide as an oil lubricant additive and synergistic interaction with IF-WS2. Bull Korean Chem Soc 41(5): 518-529 (2020)
Zhang S H, Qiao Y J, Liu Y H, Ma L R, Luo J B. Molecular behaviors in thin film lubrication—Part one: Film formation for different polarities of molecules. Friction 7(4): 372-387 (2019)
Desanker M, Johnson B, Seyam A M, Chung Y W, Bazzi H S, Delferro M, Marks T J, Wang Q J. Oil-soluble silver-organic molecule for in situ deposition of lubricious metallic silver at high temperatures. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8(21): 13637-13645 (2016)
Zhang B S, Xu B S, Xu Y, Gao F, Shi P J, Wu Y X. Cu nanoparticles effect on the tribological properties of hydrosilicate powders as lubricant additive for steel-steel contacts. Tribol Int 44(7-8): 878-886 (2011)
Chen Y F, Zhang Y J, Zhang S M, Yu L G, Zhang P Y, Zhang Z J. Preparation of nickel-based nanolubricants via a facile in situ one-step route and investigation of their tribological properties. Tribol Lett 51(1): 73-83 (2013)
Alves S M, Barros B S, Trajano M F, Ribeiro K S B, Moura E. Tribological behavior of vegetable oil-based lubricants with nanoparticles of oxides in boundary lubrication conditions. Tribol Int 65: 28-36 (2013)
Wu Y Y, Tsui W C, Liu T C. Experimental analysis of tribological properties of lubricating oils with nanoparticle additives. Wear 262(7-8): 819-825 (2007)
Ran X, Yu X Y, Zou Q. Effect of Particle concentration on tribological properties of zno nanofluids. Tribol Trans 60(1): 154-158 (2016)
Ingole S, Charanpahari A, Kakade A, Umare S S, Menghani J. Tribological behavior of nano TiO2 as an additive in base oil. Wear 301(1-2): 776-785 (2013)
Krishna Sabareesh R, Gobinath N, Sajith V, Das S, Sobhan C B. Application of TiO2 nanoparticles as a lubricant-additive for vapor compression refrigeration systems-An experimental investigation. Int J Refriger 35 (7): 1989-1996 (2012)
Wu H, Zhao J W, Xia W Z, Cheng X W, He A S, Yun J H, Wang L Z, Huang H, Jiao S H, Huang L, Zhang S Q, Jiang Z Y. A study of the tribological behaviour of TiO2 nano-additive water-based lubricants. Tribol Int 109: 398-408 (2017)
Koshy C P, Rajendrakumar P K, Thottackkad M V. Evaluation of the tribological and thermo-physical properties of coconut oil added with MoS2 nanoparticles at elevated temperatures. Wear 330-331: 288-308 (2015)
Srinivas V, Thakur R N, Jain A K. Antiwear, antifriction, and extreme pressure properties of motor bike engine oil dispersed with molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles. Tribol Trans 60(1): 12-19 (2016)
Rapoport L, Lvovsky M, Lapsker I, Leshchinsky V, Volovik Y, Feldman Y, Margolin A, Rosentsveig R, Tenne R. Slow release of fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles from Fe-Ni graphite matrix: A self-lubricating nanocomposite. Nano Lett 1(3): 137-140 (2001)
Ratoi M, Niste V B, Zekonyte J. WS2 nanoparticles-potential replacement for ZDDP and friction modifier additives. RSC Adv 4(41): 21238 (2014)
Chen B S, Gu K C, Fang J H, Wu J, Wang J, Zhang N. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant. Appl Surf Sci 353: 326-332 (2015)
Fan X Q, Wang L P. High-performance lubricant additives based on modified graphene oxide by ionic liquids. J Colloid Interface Sci 452: 98-108 (2015)
Zhao J, Mao J Y, Li Y R, He Y Y, Luo J B. Friction-induced nano-structural evolution of graphene as a lubrication additive. Appl Surf Sci 434: 21-27 (2018)
Jiao D, Zheng S H, Wang Y Z, Guan R F, Cao B Q. The tribology properties of alumina/silica composite nanoparticles as lubricant additives. Appl Surf Sci 257(13): 5720-5725 (2011)
Meng Y, Su F Hu, Chen Y Z. Au/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Synthesized in Supercritical CO2 Fluid as Energy Efficient Lubricant Additive. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(45): 39549-39559 (2017)
Song W, Yan J C, Ji H B. Tribological study of the SOCNTs@MoS2 composite as a lubricant additive: Synergistic effect. Ind Eng Chem Res 57(20): 6878-6887 (2018)
Wang J H, Lu B, Zhang L X, Li T, Yan T T, Li M X. An investigation on the tribological properties of Co(ReO4)2/MoS2 composite as potential lubricating additive at various temperatures. Mater Res Express 5(2): 026522 (2018)
Ratoi M, Niste V B, Walker J, Zekonyte J. Mechanism of action of WS2 lubricant nanoadditives in high-pressure contacts. Tribol Lett 52(1): 81-91 (2013)
Sia S Y, Bassyony E Z, Sarhan A A D. Development of SiO2 nanolubrication system to be used in sliding bearings. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71(5-8): 1277-1284 (2014)
Rai Y, Neville A, Morina A. Transient processes of MoS2 tribofilm formation under boundary lubrication. Lubricat Sci 28 (7): 449-471 (2016)
Sui T Y, Song B Y, Zhang F, Yang Q X. Effect of particle size and ligand on the tribological properties of amino functionalized hairy silica nanoparticles as an additive to polyalphaolefin. J Nanomater 2015: 492401 (2015)
Bao Y Y, Sun J L, Kong L H. Tribological properties and lubricating mechanism of SiO2 nanoparticles in water-based fluid. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 182: 012025 (2017)
Li R Y, Wang Y F, Zhang J Y, Zhang J Y. Origin of higher graphitization under higher humidity on the frictional surface of self-mated hydrogenated carbon films. Appl Surf Sci 494: 452-457 (2019)
Wang Y F, Gao K X, Zhang B, Wang Q, Zhang J Y. Structure effects of sp2-rich carbon films under super-low friction contact. Carbon 137: 49-56 (2018)
Zhao J, He Y Y, Wang Y F, Wang W, Yan L, Luo J B. An investigation on the tribological properties of multilayer graphene and MoS2 nanosheets as additives used in hydraulic applications. Tribol Int 97: 14-20 (2016)
Kalin M, Kogovšek J, Remškar M. Nanoparticles as novel lubricating additives in a green, physically based lubrication technology for DLC coatings. Wear 303(1-2): 480-485 (2013)
Kogovšek J, Remškar M, Kalin M. Lubrication of DLC-coated surfaces with MoS2 nanotubes in all lubrication regimes: Surface roughness and running-in effects. Wear 303(1-2): 361-370 (2013)
Shi S C, Wu J Y, Huang T F, Peng Y Q. Improving the tribological performance of biopolymer coating with MoS2 additive. Surf Coat Technol 303: 250-255 (2016)
Zhang Y, Tang H, Ji X R, Li C S, Chen L, Zhang D, Yang X F, Zhang H T. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/Cu nanoparticle composites and their tribological properties. RSC Adv 3(48): 26086 (2013)
Çelik O N, Ay N, Göncü Y. Effect of nano hexagonal boron nitride lubricant additives on the friction and wear properties of AISI 4140 steel. Partic Sci Technol 31(5): 501-506 (2013)
Gulzar M, Masjuki H, Kalam M, Varman M, Zulkifli N, Mufti R A, Zahid R, Yunus R. Dispersion stability and tribological characteristics of TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites enriched bio-based lubricant. Tribol Trans 60(4): 670-680 (2017)
Choi Y, Lee C, Hwang Y, Park M, Lee J, Choi C, Jung M. Tribological behavior of copper nanoparticles as additives in oil. Curr Appl Phys 9(2S): e124-e127 (2009)
Chu H Y, Hsu W C, Lin J F. Scuffing mechanism during oil-lubricated block-on-ring test with diamond nanoparticles as oil additive. Wear 268(11-12): 1423-1433 (2010)
Publication history
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 15 July 2020
Accepted: 03 September 2020
Published: 01 December 2020
Issue date: October 2021


© The author(s) 2020


This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51905027), the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFB2000801), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (BUCTRC201908), the Tribology Science Fund of State Key Laboratory of Tribology (SKLTKF18A02), and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas Nos. 2016-01098 and 2019-00904), and the Swedish Research Council (No. 2019-04941).

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit