Journal Home > Volume 7 , Issue 3

Two-dimensional materials having a layered structure comprise a monolayer or multilayers of atomic thickness and ultra-low shear strength. Their high specific surface area, in-plane strength, weak layer-layer interaction, and surface chemical stability result in remarkably low friction and wear-resisting properties. Thus, 2D materials have attracted considerable attention. In recent years, great advances have been made in the scientific research and industrial applications of anti-friction, anti-wear, and lubrication of 2D materials. In this article, the basic nanoscale friction mechanisms of 2D materials including interfacial friction and surface friction mechanisms are summarized. This paper also includes a review of reports on lubrication mechanisms based on the film-formation, self-healing, and ball bearing mechanisms and applications based on lubricant additives, nanoscale lubricating films, and space lubrication materials of 2D materials in detail. Finally, the challenges and potential applications of 2D materials in the field of lubrication were also presented.

Full text
About this article

Recent advances in friction and lubrication of graphene and other 2D materials: Mechanisms and applications

Show Author's information Lincong LIU1Ming ZHOU1( )Long JIN1Liangchuan LI1Youtang MO1Guoshi SU1Xiao LI2Hongwei ZHU3Yu TIAN4
School of Mechanical Engineering, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, China
Chengdu Carbon Co., Ltd., No.88 South2 Road, Economic and Technological Development Zone, Chengdu 610100, China
State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China


Two-dimensional materials having a layered structure comprise a monolayer or multilayers of atomic thickness and ultra-low shear strength. Their high specific surface area, in-plane strength, weak layer-layer interaction, and surface chemical stability result in remarkably low friction and wear-resisting properties. Thus, 2D materials have attracted considerable attention. In recent years, great advances have been made in the scientific research and industrial applications of anti-friction, anti-wear, and lubrication of 2D materials. In this article, the basic nanoscale friction mechanisms of 2D materials including interfacial friction and surface friction mechanisms are summarized. This paper also includes a review of reports on lubrication mechanisms based on the film-formation, self-healing, and ball bearing mechanisms and applications based on lubricant additives, nanoscale lubricating films, and space lubrication materials of 2D materials in detail. Finally, the challenges and potential applications of 2D materials in the field of lubrication were also presented.

Keywords: lubrication, two-dimensional materials, graphene, anti-friction, anti-wear


S Z Wen, P Huang. Principles of Tribology. 4th ed. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University Press, 2012.
K Holmberg, P Andersson, A Erdemir. Global energy consumption due to friction in passenger cars. Tribol Int 47: 221-234 (2012)
K Holmberg, P Andersson, N O Nylund, K Makela, A Erdemir. Global energy consumption due to friction in trucks and buses. Tribol Int 78: 94-114 (2014)
M Nosonovsky. Oil as a lubricant in the ancient middle east. Tribol Online 2(2): 44-49 (2007)
D Berman, A Erdemir, A V Sumant. Graphene: A new emerging lubricant. Mater Today 17(1): 31-42 (2014)
D Le Cao Ky, B C Tran Khac, C T Le, Y S Kim, K H Chung. Friction characteristics of mechanically exfoliated and CVD-grown single-layer MoS2. Friction 6(4): 395-406 (2018)
J C Spear, B W Ewers, J D Batteas. 2D-nanomaterials for controlling friction and wear at interfaces. Nano Today 10(3): 301-314 (2015)
Q Y Li, S Zhang, Y Z Qi, Q Z Yao, Y H Huang. Friction of two-dimensional materials at the nanoscale: Behavior and mechanisms. Chin J Solid Mech 38(3): 189-214 (2017)
Z F Chen, Z Wang, X M Li, Y X Lin, N Q Luo, M Z Long, N Zhao, J B Xu. Flexible piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors for static measurements based on nanowires/graphene heterostructures. ACS Nano 11(5): 4507-4513 (2017)
J J Li, X Y Ge, J B Luo. Random occurrence of macroscale superlubricity of graphite enabled by tribo-transfer of multilayer graphene nanoflakes. Carbon 138: 154-160 (2018)
X M Li, Z Lv, H W Zhu. Carbon/silicon heterojunction solar cells: State of the art and prospects. Adv Mater 27(42): 6549-6574 (2015)
X M Li, H W Zhu, K L Wang, A Y Cao, J Q Wei, C Y Li, Y Jia, Z Li, X Li, D H Wu. Graphene-on-silicon schottky junction solar cells. Adv Mater 22(25): 2743-2748 (2010)
X M Li, M Zhu, M D Du, Z Lv, L Zhang, Y C Li, Y Yang, T T Yang, X Li, K L Wang, et al. High detectivity graphene-silicon heterojunction photodetector. Small 12(5): 595-601 (2016)
W G Ouyang, M Ma, Q S Zheng, M Urbakh. Frictional properties of nanojunctions including atomically thin sheets. Nano Lett 16(3): 1878-1883 (2016)
L F Wang, T B Ma, Y Z Hu, H Wang, T M Shao. Ab initio study of the friction mechanism of fluorographene and graphane. J Phys Chem C 117(24): 12520-12525 (2013)
Q Xu, X Li, J Zhang, Y Z Hu, H Wang, T B Ma. Suppressing nanoscale wear by graphene/graphene interfacial contact architecture: A molecular dynamics study. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(46): 40959-40968 (2017)
M M Yang, Z Z Zhang, X T Zhu, X H Men, G N Ren. In situ reduction and functionalization of graphene oxide to improve the tribological behavior of a phenol formaldehyde composite coating. Friction 3(1): 72-81 (2015)
G K Zhao, X M Li, M R Huang, Z Zhen, Y J Zhong, Q Chen, X L Zhao, Y J He, R R Hu, T T Yang, et al. The physics and chemistry of graphene-on-surfaces. Chem Soc Rev 46(15): 4417-4449 (2017)
X H Zheng, L Gao, Q Z Yao, Q Y Li, M Zhang, X M Xie, S Qiao, G Wang, T B Ma, Z F Di, et al. Robust ultra-low-friction state of graphene via moiré superlattice confinement. Nat Commun 7: 13204 (2016)
T Onodera, Y Morita, A Suzuki, M Koyama, H Tsuboi, N Hatakeyama, A Endou, H Takaba, M Kubo, F Dassenoy, et al. A computational chemistry study on friction of h-MoS2. Part I. Mechanism of single sheet lubrication. J Phys Chem B 113(52): 16526-16536 (2009)
W P Wang, W S Qu, J G Zhao. Preparation and lubrication performance of soluble graphene. Carbon Tech 34(6): 17-20 (2015)
C H Cao, Y Sun, T Filleter. Characterizing mechanical behavior of atomically thin films: A review. J Mater Res 29(3): 338-347 (2014)
C G Lee, Q Y Li, W Kalb, X Z Liu, H Berger, R W Carpick, J Hone. Frictional characteristics of atomically thin sheets. Science 328(5974): 76-80 (2010)
O Penkov, H J Kim, H J Kim, D E Kim. Tribology of graphene: A review. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 15(3): 577-585 (2014)
Z Liu, J R Yang, F Grey, J Z Liu, Y L Liu, Y B Wang, Y L Yang, Y Cheng, Q S Zheng. Observation of microscale superlubricity in graphite. Phys Rev Lett 108(20): 205503 (2012)
D Marchetto, T Feser, M Dienwiebel. Microscale study of frictional properties of graphene in ultra high vacuum. Friction 3(2): 161-169 (2015)
R Ansari, S Ajori, B Motevalli. Mechanical properties of defective single-layered graphene sheets via molecular dynamics simulation. Superlattices Microstruct 51(2): 274-289 (2012)
A Smolyanitsky, J P Killgore. Anomalous friction in suspended graphene. Phys Rev B 86(12): 125432 (2012)
H M Yoon, Y Jung, S C Jun, S Kondaraju, J S Lee. Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoscale and sub-nanoscale friction behavior between graphene and a silicon tip: Analysis of tip apex motion. Nanoscale 7(14): 6295-6303 (2015)
J N Hu, X L Ruan, Y P Chen. Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene nanoribbons: A molecular dynamics study. Nano Lett 9(7): 2730-2735 (2009)
J W Kang, K W Lee. Oscillatory behavior of graphene nanoflake on graphene nanoribbon. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15(2): 1199-1202 (2015)
N Sasaki, H Okamoto, N Itamura, K Miura. Atomic-scale friction of monolayer graphenes with armchair- and zigzag-type edges during peeling process. e-J Surf Sci Nanotechnol 8: 105-111 (2010)
S K Kwon, J H Ko, K J Jeon, Y H Kim, J Y Park. Enhanced nanoscale friction on fluorinated graphene. Nano Lett 12(12): 6043-6048 (2012)
I Leven, T Maaravi, I Azuri, L Kronik, O Hod. Interlayer potential for graphene/h-BN heterostructures. J Chem Theory Comput 12(6): 2896-2905 (2016)
G Levita, A Cavaleiro, E Molinari, T Polcar, M C Righi. Sliding properties of MoS2 layers: Load and interlayer orientation effects. J Phys Chem C 118(25): 13809-13816 (2014)
M Reguzzoni, A Fasolino, E Molinari, M C Righi. Potential energy surface for graphene on graphene: Ab initio derivation, analytical description, and microscopic interpretation. Phys Rev B 86(24): 245434 (2012)
C Q Wang, W G Chen, Y S Zhang, Q Sun, Y Jia. Effects of vdW interaction and electric field on friction in MoS2. Tribol Lett 59(1): 7 (2015)
J J Wang, J M Li, C Li, X L Cai, W G Zhu, Y Jia. Tuning the nanofriction between two graphene layers by external electric fields: A density functional theory study. Tribol Lett 61(1): 4 (2016)
L F Wang, T B Ma, Y Z Hu, H Wang. Atomic-scale friction in graphene oxide: An interfacial interaction perspective from first-principles calculations. Phys Rev B 86(12): 125436 (2012)
H She, B Wang. A geometrically nonlinear finite element model of nanomaterials with consideration of surface effects. Finite Elem Anal Des 45(6-7): 463-467 (2009)
E Mohammadpour, M Awang. Nonlinear finite-element modeling of graphene and single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial tension. Appl Phys A 106(3): 581-588 (2012)
W H Bragg. An Introduction to Crystal Analysis. London (UK): G. Bell and Sons, Ltd., 1928.
G A Tomlinson. A molecular theory of friction. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 7(S46): 905-939 (1929)
K Shinjo, M Hirano. Dynamics of friction: Superlubric state. Surf Sci 283(1-3): 473-478 (1993)
M Hirano, K Shinjo, R Kaneko, Y Murata. Anisotropy of frictional forces in muscovite mica. Phys Rev Lett 67(19): 2642-2645 (1991)
M Hirano, K Shinjo, R Kaneko, Y Murata. Observation of superlubricity by scanning tunneling microscopy. Phys Rev Lett 78(8): 1448-1451 (1997)
M Hirano, K Shinjo. Atomistic locking and friction. Phys Rev B 41(17): 11837-11851 (1990)
M Dienwiebel, N Pradeep, G S Verhoeven, H W Zandbergen, J W M Frenken. Model experiments of superlubricity of graphite. Surf Sci 576(1-3): 197-211 (2005)
M Dienwiebel, G S Verhoeven, N Pradeep, J W Frenken, J A Heimberg, H W Zandbergen. Superlubricity of graphite. Phys Rev Lett 92(12): 126101 (2004)
J M Martin, C Donnet, T Le Mogne, T Epicier. Superlubricity of molybdenum disulphide. Phys Rev B 48(14): 10583-10586 (1993)
W G Ouyang. New reduced models for structural superlubricity. Doctor's thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 2016.
J B Pu, L P Wang, Q J Xu. Progress of tribology of graphene and graphene-based composite lubricating materials. Tribology 34(1): 93-112 (2014)
X F Feng, S K Kwon, J Y Park, M Salmeron. Superlubric sliding of graphene nanoflakes on graphene. ACS Nano 7(2): 1718-1724 (2013)
H Li, J H Wang, S Gao, Q Chen, L M Peng, K H Liu, X L Wei. Superlubricity between MoS2 monolayers. Adv Mater 29(27): 1701474 (2017)
O Hod. Superlubricity - a new perspective on an established paradigm. arXiv preprint arXiv:1204.3749, 2012.
J R Yang, Z Liu, F Grey, Z P Xu, X D Li, Y L Liu, M Urbakh, Y Cheng, Q S Zheng. Observation of high-speed microscale superlubricity in graphite. Phys Rev Lett 110(25): 255504 (2013)
A E Filippov, M Dienwiebel, J W M Frenken, J Klafter, M Urbakh. Torque and twist against superlubricity. Phys Rev Lett 100(4): 046102 (2008)
M M van Wijk, M Dienwiebel, J W M Frenken, A Fasolino. Superlubric to stick-slip sliding of incommensurate graphene flakes on graphite. Phys Rev B 88(23): 235423 (2013)
A S de Wijn, C Fusco, A Fasolino. Stability of superlubric sliding on graphite. Phys Rev E 81(4): 046105 (2010)
Y L Liu, F Grey, Q S Zheng. The high-speed sliding friction of graphene and novel routes to persistent superlubricity. Sci Rep 4: (2015)
D Berman, S A Deshmukh, S K R S Sankaranarayanan, A Erdemir, A V Sumant. Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation. Science 348(6239): 1118-1122 (2015)
P Wu, X M Li, C H Zhang, X C Chen, S Y Lin, H Y Sun, C T Lin, H W Zhu, J B Luo. Self-assembled graphene film as low friction solid lubricant in macroscale contact. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(25): 21554-21562 (2017)
R F Zhang, Z Y Ning, Y Y Zhang, Q S Zheng, Q Chen, H H Xie, Q Zhang, W Z Qian, F Wei. Superlubricity in centimetres-long double-walled carbon nanotubes under ambient conditions. Nat Nanotechnol 8(12): 912-916 (2013)
S W Liu, H P Wang, Q Xu, T B Ma, G Yu, C H Zhang, D C Geng, Z W Yu, S G Zhang, W Z Wang, Y Z Hu, H Wang, J B Luo. Robust microscale superlubricity under high contact pressure enabled by graphene-coated microsphere. Nat Commun 8: 14029 (2017)
C C Vu, S M Zhang, M Urbakh, Q Y Li, Q C He, Q S Zheng. Observation of normal-force-independent superlubricity in mesoscopic graphite contacts. Phys Rev B 94(8): 081405 (2016)
O Hod. Interlayer commensurability and superlubricity in rigid layered materials. Phys Rev B 86(7): 075444 (2012)
S Cahangirov, S Ciraci, V O Özçelik. Superlubricity through graphene multilayers between Ni(111) surfaces. Phys Rev B 87(20): 205428 (2013)
Y F Guo, J P Qiu, W L Guo. Reduction of interfacial friction in commensurate graphene/h-BN heterostructures by surface functionalization. Nanoscale 8(1): 575-580 (2016)
I Leven, D Krepel, O Shemesh, O Hod. Robust superlubricity in graphene/h-BN heterojunctions. J Phys Chem Lett 4(1): 115-120 (2013)
K Matsushita, H Matsukawa, N Sasaki. Atomic scale friction between clean graphite surfaces. Solid State Commun 136(1): 51-55 (2005)
N Sasaki, K Kobayashi, M Tsukada. Atomic-scale friction image of graphite in atomic-force microscopy. Phys Rev B 54(3): 2138-2149 (1996)
N Sasaki, M Tsukada, S Fujisawa, Y Sugawara, S Morita, K Kobayashi. Load dependence of the frictional-force microscopy image pattern of the graphite surface. Phys Rev B 57(7): 3785-3786 (1998)
Y F Guo, W L Guo, C F Chen. Modifying atomic-scale friction between two graphene sheets: A molecular-force-field study. Phys Rev B 76(15): 155429 (2007)
F Bonelli, N Manini, E Cadelano, L Colombo. Atomistic simulations of the sliding friction of graphene flakes. Eur Phys J B 70(4): 449-459 (2009)
L Xu, T B Ma, Y Z Hu, H Wang. Vanishing stick-slip friction in few-layer graphenes: The thickness effect. Nanotechnology 22(28): 285708 (2011)
R J Cannara, M J Brukman, K Cimatu, A V Sumant, S Baldelli, R W Carpick. Nanoscale friction varied by isotopic shifting of surface vibrational frequencies. Science 318(5851): 780-783 (2007)
T Filleter, J L McChesney, A Bostwick, E Rotenberg, K V Emtsev, T Seyller, K Horn, R Bennewitz. Friction and dissipation in epitaxial graphene films. Phys Rev Lett 102(8): 086102 (2009)
Y L Dong. Effects of substrate roughness and electron-phonon coupling on thickness-dependent friction of graphene. J Phys D Appl Phys 47(5): 055305 (2014)
C G Lee, X D Wei, Q Y Li, R Carpick, J W Kysar, J Hone. Elastic and frictional properties of graphene. Phys Status Solidi B 246(11-12): 2562-2567 (2009)
Q Y Li, C G Lee, R W Carpick, J Hone. Substrate effect on thickness-dependent friction on graphene. Phys Status Solidi B 247(11-12): 2909-2914 (2010)
D H Cho, L Wang, J S Kim, G H Lee, E S Kim, S H Lee, S Y Lee, J Hone, C G Lee. Effect of surface morphology on friction of graphene on various substrates. Nanoscale 5(7): 3063 (2013)
Z Deng, N N Klimov, S D Solares, T Li, H Xu, R J Cannara. Nanoscale interfacial friction and adhesion on supported versus suspended monolayer and multilayer graphene. Langmuir 29(1): 235-243 (2013)
Z J Ye, C Tang, Y L Dong, A Martini. Role of wrinkle height in friction variation with number of graphene layers. J Appl Phys 112(11): 116102 (2012)
A Smolyanitsky, J P Killgore, V K Tewary. Effect of elastic deformation on frictional properties of few-layer graphene. Phys Rev B 85(3): 035412 (2012)
Z Deng, A Smolyanitsky, Q Y Li, X Q Feng, R J Cannara. Adhesion-dependent negative friction coefficient on chemically modified graphite at the nanoscale. Nat Mater 11(12): 1032-1037 (2012)
X Y Sun, Y Z Qi, W G Ouyang, X Q Feng, Q Y Li. Energy corrugation in atomic-scale friction on graphite revisited by molecular dynamics simulations. Acta Mech Sin 32(4): 604-610 (2015)
M Reguzzoni, A Fasolino, E Molinari, M C Righi. Friction by shear deformations in multilayer graphene. J Phys Chem C 116(39): 21104-21108 (2012)
Y Y Wu, W C Tsui, T C Liu. Experimental analysis of tribological properties of lubricating oils with nanoparticle additives. Wear 262(7-8): 819-825 (2007)
X Y Song, S H Zheng, J Zhang, W Li, Q Chen, B Q Cao. Synthesis of monodispersed ZnAl2O4 nanoparticles and their tribology properties as lubricant additives. Mater Res Bull 47(12): 4305-4310 (2012)
F Chiñas-Castillo, H A Spikes. Mechanism of action of colloidal solid dispersions. J Tribol 125(3): 552-557 (2003)
T Xu, J Z Zhao, K Xu. The ball-bearing effect of diamond nanoparticles as an oil additive. J Phys D Appl Phys 29(11): 2932-2937 (1996)
L Rapoport, V Leshchynsky, M Lvovsky, O Nepomnyashchy, Y Volovik, R Tenne. Mechanism of friction of fullerenes. Ind Lubr Tribol 54(4): 171-176 (2002)
Z S Hu, R Lai, F Lou, L G Wang, Z L Chen, G X Chen, J X Dong. Preparation and tribological properties of nanometer magnesium borate as lubricating oil additive. Wear 252(5-6): 370-374 (2002)
M Kalin, J Kogovšek, M Remškar. Mechanisms and improvements in the friction and wear behavior using MoS2 nanotubes as potential oil additives. Wear 280-281: 36-45 (2012)
A Verma, W P Jiang, H H Abu Safe, W D Brown, A P Malshe. Tribological behavior of deagglomerated active inorganic nanoparticles for advanced lubrication. Tribol Trans 51(5): 673-678 (2008)
R Chou, A H Battez, J J Cabello, J L Viesca, A Osorio, A Sagastume. Tribological behavior of polyalphaolefin with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Tribol Int 43(12): 2327-2332 (2010)
B M Ginzburg, L A Shibaev, O F Kireenko, A A Shepelevskii, M V Baidakova, A A Sitnikova. Antiwear effect of fullerene C60 additives to lubricating oils. Russ J Appl Chem 75(8): 1330-1335 (2002)
X D Zhou, F Xun, H Q Shi, Z S Hu. Lubricating properties of Cyanex 302-modified MoS2 microspheres in base oil 500SN. Lubr Sci 19(1): 71-79 (2007)
G Liu, X Li, B Qin, D Xing, Y Guo, R Fan. Investigation of the mending effect and mechanism of copper nano-particles on a tribologically stressed surface. Tribol Lett 17(4): 961-966 (2004)
T Y Sui, B Y Song, F Zhang, Q X Yang. Effect of particle size and ligand on the tribological properties of amino functionalized hairy silica nanoparticles as an additive to polyalphaolefin. J Nanomater 16(1): 427 (2015)
Q Yan, A C Feng, H J Zhang, Y W Yin, Y YuanJ. Redox-switchable supramolecular polymers for responsive self-healing nanofibers in water. Polym Chem 4(4): 1216-1220 (2013)
K Zhang, H P Li, Q Shi, J Xu, H T Zhang, L Chen, C S Li. Synthesis and tribological properties of Ti-doped WSe2 nanoflakes. Chalcogedine Lett 12(2): 51-57 (2015)
S S Liang. Liquid exfoliation of two-dimensional nanomaterials aiming for tribological applications. Doctor's thesis. Beijing (China): Beihang University, 2015.
K H Hu, F Huang, X G Hu, Y F Xu, Y Q Zhou. Synergistic effect of nano-MoS2 and anatase nano-TiO2 on the lubrication properties of MoS2/TiO2 nano-clusters. Tribol Lett 43(1): 77-87 (2011)
Y Su, L Gong, D D Chen. An investigation on tribological properties and lubrication mechanism of graphite nanoparticles as vegetable based oil additive. J Nanomater 16(1): 203 (2015)
H P Xiao, S H Liu. 2D nanomaterials as lubricant additive: A review. Mater Des 135: 319-332 (2017)
M Gulzar, H H Masjuki, M A Kalam, M Varman, N W M Zulkifli, R A Mufti, R Zahid. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives. J Nanopart Res 18(8): 223 (2016)
Y Meng, F H Su, Y Z Chen. Supercritical fluid synthesis and tribological applications of silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene in engine oil nanofluid. Sci Rep 6: 31246 (2016)
W Dai, B Kheireddin, H Gao, Y W Kan, A Clearfield, H Liang. Formation of anti-wear tribofilms via α-ZrP nanoplatelet as lubricant additives. Lubricants 4(3): 28 (2016)
D Berman, A Erdemir, A V Sumant. Few layer graphene to reduce wear and friction on sliding steel surfaces. Carbon 54: 454-459 (2013)
D Berman, A Erdemir, A V Sumant. Reduced wear and friction enabled by graphene layers on sliding steel surfaces in dry nitrogen. Carbon 59: 167-175 (2013)
L Zhao, Z B Cai, Z C Zhang, X Zhang, Y W Lin, J F Peng, M H Zhu. Tribological properties of graphene as effective lubricant additive in oil on textured bronze surface. Chin J Mater Res 30(1): 57-62 (2016)
A Senatore, V D'Agostino, V Petrone, P Ciambelli, M Sarno. Graphene oxide nanosheets as effective friction modifier for oil lubricant: Materials, methods, and tribological results. ISRN Tribol 2013: 425809 (2013)
W Zhang, H W Zhu. Graphene enhanced lubricant oil. Chin J Nat 38(2): 94-96 (2016)
W Zhang, M Zhou, H W Zhu, Y Tian, K L Wang, J Q Wei, F Ji, X Li, Z Li, P Zhang, D H Wu. Tribological properties of oleic acid-modified graphene as lubricant oil additives. J Phys D Appl Phys 44(20): 205303 (2011)
J S Lin, L W Wang, G H Chen. Modification of graphene platelets and their tribological properties as a lubricant additive. Tribol Lett 41(1): 209-215 (2011)
S Z Zheng, Q Zhou, S R Yang, Z G Yang, J Q Wang. Preparation and tribological properties of fluorinated graphene nanosheets as additive in lubricating oil. Tribology 37(3): 402-408 (2017)
X Dou, A R Koltonow, X L He, H D Jang, Q Wang, Y W Chung, J X Huang. Self-dispersed crumpled graphene balls in oil for friction and wear reduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113(6): 1528-1533 (2016)
H J Song, N Li. Frictional behavior of oxide graphene nanosheets as water-base lubricant additive. Appl Phys A 105(4): 827-832 (2011)
D H Cho, J S Kim, S H Kwon, C G Lee, Y Z Lee. Evaluation of hexagonal boron nitride nano-sheets as a lubricant additive in water. Wear 302(1-2): 981-986 (2013)
X L He, H P Xiao, H Choi, A Díaz, B Mosby, A Clearfield, H Liang. α-Zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets as lubricant additives. Colloid Surf A 452: 32-38 (2014)
B H Zhao. Sputtering technique of MoS2 solid lubricant. Bearing (2): 31-33 (2002)
N M Renevier, H Oosterling, U König, H Dautzenberg, B J Kim, L Geppert, F G M Koopmans, J Leopold. Performance and limitations of MoS2/Ti composite coated inserts. Surf Coat Technol 172(1): 13-23 (2003)
N M Renevier, V C Fox, D G Teer, J Hampshire. Coating characteristics and tribological properties of sputter-deposited MoS2/metal composite coatings deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating. Surf Coat Technol 127(1): 24-37 (2000)
G Z Ma, B S Xu, H D Wang, H J Si. State of research on space solid lubrication materials. Mater Rev 24(1): 68-71 (2010)
J Y Nian, L W Chen, Z G Guo, W M Liu. Computational investigation of the lubrication behaviors of dioxides and disulfides of molybdenum and tungsten in vacuum. Friction 5(1): 23-31 (2017)
Y Z Cheng. Preparation and tribological properities of space lubricating grease containing MoS2 nanoparticles. Master's thesis. Hefei (China): Hefei University of Technology, 2012.
X Y Luo, Z J Tang, D J Wang, M H Chen. Improving antiwear properties of aviation lubricant with in situ synthesis' nano MoS2 particle/PR. Lubr Eng (5): 57-58 (2003)
H Song, L Ji, H X Li, J Q Wang, X H Liu, H D Zhou, J M Chen. Self-forming oriented layer slip and macroscale super-low friction of graphene. Appl Phys Lett 110(7): 073101 (2017)
J H Lee, S H Kim, D H Cho, S C Kim, S G Baek, J G Lee, J M Kang, J B Choi, C S Seok, M K Kim, J C Koo, B S Lim. Tribological properties of chemical vapor deposited graphene coating layer. Korean J Met Mater 50(3): 206-211 (2012)
S Watanabe, J Noshiro, S Miyake. Tribological characteristics of WS2/MoS2 solid lubricating multilayer films. Surf Coat Technol 183(2-3): 347-351 (2004)
K S Kim, H J Lee, C G Lee, S K Lee, H Jang, J H Ahn, J H Kim, H J Lee. Chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene: The thinnest solid lubricant. ACS Nano 5(6): 5107-5114 (2011)
H Y Sun, X M Li, Y C Li, G X Chen, Z D Liu, F E Alam, D Dai, L Li, L Tao, J B Xu, Y Fang, X S Li, P Zhao, N Jiang, D Chen, C T Lin. High-quality monolithic graphene films via laterally stitched growth and structural repair of isolated flakes for transparent electronics. Chem Mater 29(18): 7808-7815 (2017)
L Li, X M Li, M D Du, Y C Guo, Y C Li, H B Li, Y Yang, F E Alam, C T Lin, Y Fang. Solid-phase coalescence of electrochemically exfoliated graphene flakes into a continuous film on copper. Chem Mater 28(10): 3360-3366 (2016)
M Hirano. Atomistics of superlubricity. Friction 2(2): 95-105 (2014)
Q S Zheng, Z Liu. Experimental advances in superlubricity. Friction 2(2): 182-192 (2014)
C L Tan, H Zhang. Wet-chemical synthesis and applications of non-layer structured two-dimensional nanomaterials. Nat Commun 6: 7873 (2015)
F Wang, Z X Wang, T A Shifa, Y Wen, F M Wang, X Y Zhan, Q S Wang, K Xu, Y Huang, L Yin, C Jiang, J He. Two-dimensional non-layered materials: Synthesis, properties and applications. Adv Funct Mater 27(19): 1603254 (2017)
Publication history
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 24 July 2018
Revised: 27 October 2018
Accepted: 23 December 2018
Published: 26 March 2019
Issue date: June 2019


© The author(s) 2019


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51505442) and Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 2018GXNSFAA138174).

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit