Journal Home > Volume 7 , Issue 1

Long-term observation of the triboelectric effect has not only proved the feasibility of many novel and useful tribo-devices (e.g., triboelectric nanogenerators), but also constantly motivated the exploration of its mysterious nature. In the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of how the triboelectric process works, a more accurate description of the triboelectric effect and its related parameters and factors is urgently required. This review critically goes through the fundamental theories and basic principles governing the triboelectric process. By investigating the difference between each charging media, the electron, ion, and material transfer is discussed and the theoretical deduction in the past decades is provided. With the information from the triboelectric series, interesting phenomena including cyclic triboelectric sequence and asymmetric triboelectrification are precisely analyzed. Then, the interaction between the tribo-system and its operational environment is analyzed, and a fundamental description of its effects on the triboelectric process and results is summarized. In brief, this review is expected to provide a strong understanding of the triboelectric effect in a more rigorous mathematical and physical sense.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Fundamental theories and basic principles of triboelectric effect: A review

Show Author's information Shuaihang PAN1,2Zhinan ZHANG1( )
 School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
 School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles 90095, USA

Abstract

Long-term observation of the triboelectric effect has not only proved the feasibility of many novel and useful tribo-devices (e.g., triboelectric nanogenerators), but also constantly motivated the exploration of its mysterious nature. In the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of how the triboelectric process works, a more accurate description of the triboelectric effect and its related parameters and factors is urgently required. This review critically goes through the fundamental theories and basic principles governing the triboelectric process. By investigating the difference between each charging media, the electron, ion, and material transfer is discussed and the theoretical deduction in the past decades is provided. With the information from the triboelectric series, interesting phenomena including cyclic triboelectric sequence and asymmetric triboelectrification are precisely analyzed. Then, the interaction between the tribo-system and its operational environment is analyzed, and a fundamental description of its effects on the triboelectric process and results is summarized. In brief, this review is expected to provide a strong understanding of the triboelectric effect in a more rigorous mathematical and physical sense.

Keywords:

triboelectric effect, triboelectrification, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), interface
Received: 18 January 2018 Revised: 14 March 2018 Accepted: 10 April 2018 Published: 10 August 2018 Issue date: February 2019
References(86)
[1]
Lacks D J, Sankaran R M. Contact electrification of insulating materials. J Phys Appl Phys 44:453001(2011)
[2]
McCarty L S, Whitesides G M. Electrostatic Charging due to separation of ions at interfaces: Contact electrification of ionic electrets. Angew Chem.Int Ed 47:2188–2207(2008)
[3]
Shafeek S, Luo J. Theoretical and numerical analysis of triboelectric nanogenerators for self-powered sensors. In 2016 5th International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications (ICEDSA), 2016: 1-4.
[4]
Zhu G, Peng B, Chen J, Jing Q, Wang Z L. Triboelectric nanogenerators as a new energy technology: From fundamentals, devices, to applications. Nano Energy 14:126–138(2015)
[5]
Wang Z L. Triboelectric nanogenerators as new energy technology and self-powered sensors─Principles, problems and perspectives. Faraday Discuss 176:447–458(2015)
[6]
Camara C G, Escobar J V, Hird J R, Putterman S J. Correlation between nanosecond X-ray flashes and stick– slip friction in peeling tape. Nature 455:1089(2008)
[7]
da Silva E T S G, Santhiago M., de Souza F R, Coltro W K T, Kubota L T. Triboelectric effect as a new strategy for sealing and controlling the flow in paper-based devices. Lab Chip 15:1651–1655(2015)
[8]
Ye U Y , Kim B-J, Ryu J, Lee J Y, Baik J M, Hong K. Electrospun ion gel nanofibers for flexible triboelectric nanogenerator: electrochemical effect on output power. Nanoscale 7:1618916194(2015)10.1039/C5NR02602D
[9]
Kok J F, Renno N O. Electrostatics in wind-blown sand. Phys Rev Lett 100:014501(2008)
[10]
Houghton I M P, Aplin K L, Nicoll K A. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from the Grímsvötn. Phys Rev Lett 111:118501(2013)
[11]
Zhang L, Hou J, Bi X. Triboelectric charging behavior of wood particles during pellet handling processes. J Loss Prev Process Ind 26:1328–1334(2013)
[12]
Stöcker H, Rühl M, Heinrich A, Mehner E, Meyer D C. Generation of hard X-ray radiation using the triboelectric effect by peeling adhesive tape. J Electrost 71:905–909(2013)
[13]
Lu L, Yu L. Understanding low bandgap polymer PTB7 and optimizing polymer solar cells based on it. Adv Mater 26:4413–4430(2014)
[14]
Zhang Y, Shao T. Effect of contact deformation on contact electrification: A first-principles calculation. J Phys Appl Phys 46:235304(2013)
[15]
Lin S, Shao T. Bipolar charge transfer induced by water: Experimental and first-principles studies. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19:29418–29423(2017)
[16]
Niu S, Wang Z L. Theoretical systems of triboelectric nanogenerators. Nano Energy 14:161–192(2015)
[17]
Dhakar L. Study of effect of topography on triboelectric nanogenerator performance using patterned arrays. In Triboelectric Devices for Power Generation and Self-Powered Sensing Applications. Springer, Singapore, 2017: 39-66.
DOI
[18]
Kornfeld M I. Frictional electrification. J Phys Appl Phys 9:1183(1976)
[19]
Labadz A F, Lowell J. Contact charge density and penetration depth. J Electrost 26:251–260(1991)
[20]
Sow M, Lacks D J, Sankaran R M. Effects of material strain on triboelectric charging: Influence of material properties. J Electrost 71:396–399(2013)
[21]
Thomas S W, Vella S J, Kaufman G K, Whitesides G M. Patterns of electrostatic charge and discharge in contact electrification. Angew Chem 120:6756–6758(2008)
[22]
Hinchet R, Seung W, Kim S-W. Recent progress on flexible triboelectric nanogenerators for selfpowered electronics. ChemSusChem 8:2327–2344(2015)
[23]
Kim S, Ha J, Kim J-B. Theoretical study on the dielectric effect on triboelectric nanogenerators. Integr Ferroelectr 176:283–290(2016)
[24]
Sternovsky Z, Horányi M, Robertson S. Charging of dust particles on surfaces. J Vac Sci Technol Vac Surf Films 19:2533–2541(2001)
[25]
Bera B. Literature review on triboelectric nanogenerator. Imp J Interdiscip Res 2:1263-1271(2016)
[26]
Zhang Y, Shao T. Contact electrification between polymers and steel. J Electrost 71:862–866(2013)
[27]
Lowell J, Rose-Innes A C. Contact electrification. Adv Phys 29:947–1023(1980)
[28]
Harper W R. The Volta effect as a cause of static electrification. Proc R Soc Lond A 205:83–103(1951)
[29]
Williams M W. Triboelectric charging of insulating polymers– some new perspectives. AIP Adv 2:010701(2012)
[30]
Pan S, Zhang Z. Triboelectric effect: A new perspective on electron transfer process. J Appl Phys 122:144302(2017)
[31]
Davies D K. Charge generation on dielectric surfaces. J Phys Appl Phys 2:1533(1969)
[32]
Naik S, Mukherjee R, Chaudhuri B. Triboelectrification: A review of experimental and mechanistic modeling approaches with a special focus on pharmaceutical powders. Int J Pharm 510:375–385(2016)
[33]
Trigwell S, Mazumder M K, Pellissier R. Tribocharging in electrostatic beneficiation of coal: Effects of surface composition on work function as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy in air. J Vac Sci Technol Vac Surf Films 19:1454–1459(2001)
[34]
Pan S, Zhang Z, Yin N. Time- & load-dependence of triboelectric effect. Sci Rep 8:2470(2018)
DOI
[35]
Gallo C F, Lama W L. Some charge exchange phenomena explained by a classical model of the work function. J Electrost 2:145–150(1976)
[36]
Diaz A F, Felix-Navarro R M. A semi-quantitative tribo- electric series for polymeric materials: The influence of chemical structure and properties. J Electrost 62:277–290(2004)
[37]
Sickafoose A A, Colwell J E, Horányi M, Robertson S. Experimental investigations on photoelectric and triboelectric charging of dust. J Geophys Res Space Phys 106:8343–8356(2001)
[38]
Son K-A, Kim H I, Houston J E. Role of stress on charge transfer through self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers on Au. Phys Rev Lett 86:5357–5360(2001)
[39]
Akbulut M, Godfrey Alig A R, Israelachvili J. Triboelectrification between smooth metal surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). J Phys Chem B 110:22271–22278(2006)
[40]
Kron A, Reitberger T, Stenberg B. Luminescence from γ- and β-irradiated HDPE and LLDPE. Polym Int 42:131–137(1997)
DOI
[41]
Cubero D, Quirke N, Coker D F. Electronic transport in disordered n-alkanes: From fluid methane to amorphous polyethylene. J Chem Phys 119:2669–2679(2003)
[42]
Lacks D J, Duff N, Kumar S K. Nonequilibrium accumulation of surface species and triboelectric charging in single component particulate systems. Phys Rev Lett 100:188305(2008)
[43]
Jean, M. S., Hudlet, S., Guthmann, C. & Berger, J. Local triboelectricity on oxide surfaces. Eur. Phys. J. B - Condens. Matter Complex Syst. 12, 471–477(1999).
DOI
[44]
Castle G S P. Contact charging between insulators. J Electrost 40–41:13–20(1997)
[45]
Liu C, Bard A J. Electrostatic electrochemistry at insulators. Nat Mater 7:505(2008)
[46]
Liu C, Bard A J. Electrons on dielectrics and contact electrification. Chem Phys Lett 480:145–156(2009)
[47]
Mizes H A, Conwell E M, Salamida D P. Direct observation of ion transfer in contact charging between a metal and a polymer. Appl Phys Lett 56:1597–1599(1990)
[48]
Alexander A J. Interfacial ion-transfer mechanism for the intense luminescence observed when opening self-seal envelopes. Langmuir 28:13294–13299(2012)
[49]
Gooding D M, Kaufman G K. Tribocharging and the triboelectric series. In Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
[50]
Huheey H, James E. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity. Pearson Education India.
[51]
Williams M W. Triboelectric charging of insulators – mass transfer versus electrons/ions. J Electrost 70:233–234(2012)
[52]
Salaneck W R, Paton A, Clark D T. Double mass transfer during polymer-polymer contacts. J Appl Phys 47:144–147(1976)
[53]
Wang A, Gil D, Holonga M, Lacks D J, Baytekin H T, Sankaran R M, Yavuz Z. Dependence of triboelectric charging behavior on material microstructure. Phys Rev Mater 1:035605(2017)
[54]
Chung Y G, Lacks D J. Atomic mobility in strained glassy polymers: The role of fold catastrophes on the potential energy surface. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 50:1733–1739(2012)
[55]
Jacobs T D B, Carpick R W. Nanoscale wear as a stress- assisted chemical reaction. Nat Nanotechnol 8:108(2013)
[56]
Jacobs T D B, Gotsmann B, Lantz M A, Carpick R W. On the application of transition state theory to atomic-scale wear. Tribol Lett 39:257–271(2010)
[57]
Hänggi P, Talkner P, Borkovec M. Reaction-rate theory: Fifty years after Kramers. Rev Mod Phys 62:251–341(1990)
[58]
Su Y, Chen J, Wu Z, Jiang Y. Low temperature dependence of triboelectric effect for energy harvesting and self-powered active sensing. Appl Phys Lett 106:013114(2015)
[59]
Apodaca M M, Wesson P J, Bishop K J M, Ratner M A, Grzybowski B A. Contact electrification between identical materials. Angew Chem 122:958–961(2010)
[60]
Lowell J, Truscott W S. Triboelectrification of identical insulators. II. Theory and further experiments. J Phys Appl Phys 19:1281(1986)
[61]
Shinbrot T, Komatsu T S, Zhao Q. Spontaneous tribocharging of similar materials. EPL Europhys Lett 83:24004(2008)
[62]
Baytekin H T, Patashinski A Z, Branicki M, Baytekin B, Soh S, Grzybowski B A. The mosaic of surface charge in contact electrification. Science 333:308–312(2011)
[63]
Pham R, Virnelson R C, Sankaran R M, Lacks D J. Contact charging between surfaces of identical insulating materials in asymmetric geometries. J Electrost 69:456–460(2011)
[64]
Forward K M, Lacks D J, Sankaran R M. Particle-size dependent bipolar charging of Martian regolith simulant. Geophys Res Lett 36:L13201(2009)
[65]
Miura T, Koyaguchi T, Tanaka Y. Measurements of electric charge distribution in volcanic plumes at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan. Bull Volcanol 64:75–93(2002)
[66]
Inculet I I, Peter Castle G S, Aartsen G. Generation of bipolar electric fields during industrial handling of powders. Chem Eng Sci 61:2249–2253(2006)
[67]
Melnik O, Parrot M. Electrostatic discharge in Martian dust storms. J Geophys Res Space Phys 103:29107–29117(1998)
[68]
Farrell W M, Delory G T, Cummer S A, Marshall J R. A simple electrodynamic model of a dust devil. Geophys Res Lett 30:2050(2003)
[69]
Rowley G. Quantifying electrostatic interactions in pharmaceutical solid systems. Int J Pharm 227:47–55(2001)
[70]
Forward K M, Lacks D J, Sankaran R M. Charge segregation depends on particle size in triboelectrically charged granular materials. Phys Rev Lett 102:028001(2009)
[71]
Forward K M, Lacks D J, Sankaran R M. Triboelectric charging of lunar regolith simulant. J Geophys Res Space Phys 114:A10109(2009)
[72]
Kaalund C J, Haneman D. Positive ion and electron emission from cleaved Si and Ge. Phys Rev Lett 80:3642–3645(1998)
[73]
Sakaguchi M, Shimada S, Kashiwabara H. Mechanoions produced by mechanical fracture of solid polymer. 6. A generation mechanism of triboelectricity due to the reaction of mechanoradicals with mechanoanions on the friction surface. Macromolecules 23:5038–5040(1990)
[74]
Zimmerman K A, Langford S C, Dickinson J T, Dion R P. Electron and photon emission accompanying deformation and fracture of polycarbonate. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 31:1229–1243(1993)
[75]
Yang W, Chen J, Zhu G, Wen X, Bai P, Su Y, Lin Y, Wang Z. Harvesting vibration energy by a triple-cantilever based triboelectric nanogenerator. Nano Res 6:880–886(2013)
[76]
Wang Z L, Song J. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science 312:242–246(2006)
[77]
Su L, Li, H Y, Wang Y, Kuang S Y, Wang Z L, Zhu G. Coupling of photoelectric and triboelectric effects as an effective approach for PZT-based high-performance self- powered ultraviolet photodetector. Nano Energy 31:264–269(2017)
[78]
Park J, Yun K S. Hybrid energy harvester based on piezoelectric and triboelectric effects. In 2016 IEEE 29th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2016: 41-42.
[79]
Rescaglio A, Schockmel J, Vandewalle N, Lumay G. Combined effect of moisture and electrostatic charges on powder flow. EPJ Web Conf 140:13009(2017)
[80]
Clint J H, Dunstan T S. Acid-base components of solid surfaces and the triboelectric series. EPL Europhys Lett 54:320(2001)
[81]
Wiles J A, Fialkowski M, Radowski M R, Whitesides G M, Grzybowski B A. Effects of surface modification and moisture on the rates of charge transfer between metals and organic materials. J Phys Chem B 108:20296–20302(2004)
[82]
Ducati T R D, Simões L H, Galembeck F. Charge partitioning at gas−solid interfaces: Humidity causes electricity buildup on metals. Langmuir 26:13763–13766(2010)
[83]
Gouveia R F, Galembeck F. Electrostatic charging of hydrophilic particles due to water adsorption. J Am Chem Soc 131:11381–11386(2009)
[84]
Adamson A. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces. Wiley, India, 1990.
[85]
Horn R G, Smith D T, Grabbe A. Contact electrification induced by monolayer modification of a surface and relation to acid–base interactions. Nature 366:442(1993)
[86]
Friedle S, Thomas S W. Controlling contact electrification with photochromic polymers. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:7968–7971(2010)
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 18 January 2018
Revised: 14 March 2018
Accepted: 10 April 2018
Published: 10 August 2018
Issue date: February 2019

Copyright

© The author(s) 2018

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51575340), State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication (No. LSL-1604) and the Shanghai Academy of Space Technology- Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Research Center of Advanced Aerospace Technology (USCAST2016-13). The authors gratefully acknowledge Tianlu Wang (PhD, ETH Zurich), Peng Zhang (PhD, UCLA), and Ning Yu (PhD, UCLA) for their useful comments and proofreading.

Rights and permissions

This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Return