Journal Home > Volume 11 , issue 5

Magnetic materials are of increasing importance for many essential applications due to their unique magnetic properties. However, due to the limited fabrication ability, magnetic materials are restricted by simple geometric shapes. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a highly versatile technique that can be utilized for constructing magnetic materials. The shape flexibility of magnets unleashes opportunities for magnetic composites with reducing post-manufacturing costs, motivating the review on 3D printing of magnetic materials. This paper focuses on recent achievements of magnetic materials using 3D printing technologies, followed by the characterization of their magnetic properties, which are further enhanced by modification. Interestingly, the corresponding properties depend on the intrinsic nature of starting materials, 3D printing processing parameters, and the optimized structural design. More emphasis is placed on the functional applications of 3D-printed magnetic materials in different fields. Lastly, the current challenges and future opportunities are also addressed.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Advances in 3D printing of magnetic materials: Fabrication, properties, and their applications

Show Author's information Xiangxia WEIaMing-Liang JINaHaiqiang YANGaXiao-Xiong WANGbYun-Ze LONGbZhangwei CHENc( )
Institute for Future, School of Automation, Shandong Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
Collaborative Innovation Center for Nanomaterials & Devices, College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
Additive Manufacturing Institute, College of Mechatronics and Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China

Abstract

Magnetic materials are of increasing importance for many essential applications due to their unique magnetic properties. However, due to the limited fabrication ability, magnetic materials are restricted by simple geometric shapes. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a highly versatile technique that can be utilized for constructing magnetic materials. The shape flexibility of magnets unleashes opportunities for magnetic composites with reducing post-manufacturing costs, motivating the review on 3D printing of magnetic materials. This paper focuses on recent achievements of magnetic materials using 3D printing technologies, followed by the characterization of their magnetic properties, which are further enhanced by modification. Interestingly, the corresponding properties depend on the intrinsic nature of starting materials, 3D printing processing parameters, and the optimized structural design. More emphasis is placed on the functional applications of 3D-printed magnetic materials in different fields. Lastly, the current challenges and future opportunities are also addressed.

Keywords:

three-dimensional (3D) printing, hard magnets, soft magnets, magnetic properties, applications
Received: 04 August 2021 Revised: 25 October 2021 Accepted: 08 January 2022 Published: 20 April 2022 Issue date: May 2022
References(271)
[1]
Gutfleisch O, Willard MA, Brück E, et al. Magnetic materials and devices for the 21st century: Stronger, lighter, and more energy efficient. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 821–842.
[2]
Zhao WL, Lipo TA, Kwon BI. Comparative study on novel dual stator radial flux and axial flux permanent magnet motors with ferrite magnets for traction application. IEEE Trans Magn 2014, 50: 8104404.
[3]
Jang SM, Seo HJ, Park YS, et al. Design and electromagnetic field characteristic analysis of 1.5 kW small scale wind power generator for substitution of Nd–Fe–B to ferrite permanent magnet. IEEE Trans Magn 2012, 48: 2933– 2936.
[4]
Jian G, Zhou DX, Yang JY, et al. Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry. J Magn Magn Mater 2012, 324: 4179–4183.
[5]
Jantunen H, Hu T, Uusimäki A, et al. Tape casting of ferroelectric, dielectric, piezoelectric and ferromagnetic materials. J Eur Ceram Soc 2004, 24: 1077–1081.
[6]
Tseng TY, Lin JC. Microstructure and properties of Ni–Zn ferrites sintered from slip cast colloidally precipitated particles. IEEE Trans Magn 1989, 25: 4405–4408.
[7]
Murillo N, González J, Guraya C, et al. Structural and magnetic properties of sintered Sr-ferrites fabricated by powder injection molding. J Magn Magn Mater 1999, 203: 165–168.
[8]
Ye Y, Qiao L, Zheng JW, et al. Effect of microcrystalline wax on the solvent debinding of the Sr-ferrite ceramics prepared by powder injection molding. J Eur Ceram Soc 2017, 37: 2105–2114.
[9]
Gutiérrez-López J, Rodriguez-Senín E, Pastor JY, et al. Microstructure, magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni–Zn ferrites prepared by powder injection moulding. Powder Technol 2011, 210: 29–35.
[10]
Saura-Múzquiz M, Granados-Miralles C, Stingaciu M, et al. Improved performance of SrFe12O19 bulk magnets through bottom-up nanostructuring. Nanoscale 2016, 8: 2857–2866.
[11]
Stingaciu M, Topole M, McGuiness P, et al. Magnetic properties of ball-milled SrFe12O19 particles consolidated by spark-plasma sintering. Sci Rep 2015, 5: 14112.
[12]
Eikeland AZ, Stingaciu M, Granados-Miralles C, et al. Enhancement of magnetic properties by spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally synthesised SrFe12O19. CrystEngComm 2017, 19: 1400–1407.
[13]
Bollero A, Rial J, Villanueva M, et al. Recycling of strontium ferrite waste in a permanent magnet manufacturing plant. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2017, 5: 3243–3249.
[14]
Stansbury JW, Idacavage MJ. 3D printing with polymers: Challenges among expanding options and opportunities. Dent Mater 2016, 32: 54–64.
[15]
Yuk HW, Lu BY, Lin S, et al. 3D printing of conducting polymers. Nat Commun 2020, 11: 1604.
[16]
Su XR, Li XW, Ong CYA, et al. Metallization of 3D printed polymers and their application as a fully functional water-splitting system. Adv Sci: Weinh 2019, 6: 1801670.
[17]
Mao YQ, Yu K, Isakov MS, et al. Sequential self-folding structures by 3D printed digital shape memory polymers. Sci Rep 2015, 5: 13616.
[18]
Yamada A, Niikura F, Ikuta K. A three-dimensional microfabrication system for biodegradable polymers with high resolution and biocompatibility. J Micromech Microeng 2008, 18: 025035.
[19]
Huang XL, Chang S, Lee WSV, et al. Three-dimensional printed cellular stainless steel as a high-activity catalytic electrode for oxygen evolution. J Mater Chem A 2017, 5: 18176–18182.
[20]
Xie FX, He XB, Cao SL, et al. Structural and mechanical characteristics of porous 316L stainless steel fabricated by indirect selective laser sintering. J Mater Process Technol 2013, 213: 838–843.
[21]
Jakus AE, Taylor SL, Geisendorfer NR, et al. Metallic architectures from 3D-printed powder-based liquid inks. Adv Funct Mater 2015, 25: 6985–6995.
[22]
Noguera R, Lejeune M, Chartier T. 3D fine scale ceramic components formed by ink-jet prototyping process. J Eur Ceram Soc 2005, 25: 2055–2059.
[23]
Chen ZW, Li ZY, Li JJ, et al. 3D printing of ceramics: A review. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 661–687.
[24]
Cheng J, Chen Y, Wu JW, et al. 3D printing of BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics for a focused ultrasonic array. Sensors 2019, 19: 4078.
[25]
Wei XX, Liu YH, Zhao DJ, et al. 3D printing of piezoelectric barium titanate with high density from milled powders. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 5423–5430.
[26]
Wei XX, Nagarajan RS, Peng E, et al. Fabrication of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) superconductor bulk structures by extrusion freeforming. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 15836–15842.
[27]
Peng E, Wei XX, Garbe U, et al. Robocasting of dense yttria-stabilized zirconia structures. J Mater Sci 2018, 53: 247–273.
[28]
Lakhdar Y, Tuck C, Binner J, et al. Additive manufacturing of advanced ceramic materials. Prog Mater Sci 2021, 116: 100736.
[29]
He RJ, Zhou NP, Zhang KQ, et al. Progress and challenges towards additive manufacturing of SiC ceramic. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 637–674.
[30]
Farahani RD, Dubé M, Therriault D. Three-dimensional printing of multifunctional nanocomposites: Manufacturing techniques and applications. Adv Mater 2016, 28: 5794– 5821.
[31]
Valino AD, Dizon JRC, Espera AH Jr, et al. Advances in 3D printing of thermoplastic polymer composites and nanocomposites. Prog Polym Sci 2019, 98: 101162.
[32]
Wang X, Jiang M, Zhou ZW, et al. 3D printing of polymer matrix composites: A review and prospective. Compos B Eng 2017, 110: 442–458.
[33]
Kim K, Zhu W, Qu X, et al. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials. ACS Nano 2014, 8: 9799–9806.
[34]
Dermanaki Farahani R, Dubé M. Printing polymer nanocomposites and composites in three dimensions. Adv Eng Mater 2018, 20: 1700539.
[35]
Zhang X, Yao JH, Liu B, et al. Three-dimensional high-entropy alloy-polymer composite nanolattices that overcome the strength-recoverability trade-off. Nano Lett 2018, 18: 4247–4256.
[36]
Kim Y, Yuk H, Zhao R, et al. Printing ferromagnetic domains for untethered fast-transforming soft materials. Nature 2018, 558: 274–279.
[37]
Guo SZ, Qiu KY, Meng FB, et al. 3D printed stretchable tactile sensors. Adv Mater 2017, 29: 1701218.
[38]
Zhao JX, Zhang Y, Huang YN, et al. 3D printing fiber electrodes for an all-fiber integrated electronic device via hybridization of an asymmetric supercapacitor and a temperature sensor. Adv Sci: Weinh 2018, 5: 1801114.
[39]
Sun K, Wei TS, Ahn BY, et al. 3D printing of interdigitated Li-ion microbattery architectures. Adv Mater 2013, 25: 4539–4543.
[40]
McOwen DW, Xu SM, Gong YH, et al. 3D-printing electrolytes for solid-state batteries. Adv Mater 2018, 30: 1707132.
[41]
Park J, Kim JK, Kim DS, et al. Wireless pressure sensor integrated with a 3D printed polymer stent for smart health monitoring. Sens Actuat B Chem 2019, 280: 201–209.
[42]
Gul JZ, Sajid M, Rehman MM, et al. 3D printing for soft robotics—A review. Sci Technol Adv Mater 2018, 19: 243–262.
[43]
Bartlett NW, Tolley MT, Overvelde JTB, et al. A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion. Science 2015, 349: 161–165.
[44]
Wallin TJ, Pikul J, Shepherd RF. 3D printing of soft robotic systems. Nat Rev Mater 2018, 3: 84–100.
[45]
Neufurth M, Wang XH, Wang SF, et al. 3D printing of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Calcium-polyphosphate microparticles encapsulated by polycaprolactone. Acta Biomater 2017, 64: 377–388.
[46]
Melchels FPW, Feijen J, Grijpma DW. A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering. Biomaterials 2010, 31: 6121–6130.
[47]
Hwang HH, Zhu W, Victorine G, et al. 3D-printing of functional biomedical microdevices via light- and extrusion-based approaches. Small Methods 2018, 2: 1700277.
[48]
Beg S, Almalki WH, Malik A, et al. 3D printing for drug delivery and biomedical applications. Drug Discov Today 2020, 25: 1668–1681.
[49]
Li HH, Yin YX, Xiang Y, et al. A novel 3D printing PCL/ GelMA scaffold containing USPIO for MRI-guided bile duct repair. Biomed Mater 2020, 15: 045004.
[50]
Wei XX, Sugumaran PJ, Peng E, et al. Low-field dynamic magnetic separation by self-fabricated magnetic meshes for efficient heavy metal removal. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017, 9: 36772–36782.
[51]
Tian XC, Jin J, Yuan SQ, et al. Emerging 3D-printed electrochemical energy storage devices: A critical review. Adv Energy Mater 2017, 7: 1700127.
[52]
Qiao HY, Zhang Y, Huang ZG, et al. 3D printing individualized triboelectric nanogenerator with macro-pattern. Nano Energy 2018, 50: 126–132.
[53]
Li R, Yuan SQ, Zhang W, et al. 3D printing of mixed matrix films based on metal-organic frameworks and thermoplastic polyamide 12 by selective laser sintering for water applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019, 11: 40564–40574.
[54]
Du R, Zhao QC, Zheng Z, et al. 3D self-supporting porous magnetic assemblies for water remediation and beyond. Adv Energy Mater 2016, 6: 1600473.
[55]
Ruiz-Morales JC, Tarancón A, Canales-Vázquez J, et al. Three dimensional printing of components and functional devices for energy and environmental applications. Energy Environ Sci 2017, 10: 846–859.
[56]
Lantean S, Barrera G, Pirri CF, et al. 3D printing of magnetoresponsive polymeric materials with tunable mechanical and magnetic properties by digital light processing. Adv Mater Technol 2019, 4: 1900505.
[57]
Huber C, Abert C, Bruckner F, et al. 3D print of polymer bonded rare-earth magnets, and 3D magnetic field scanning with an end-user 3D printer. Appl Phys Lett 2016, 109: 162401.
[58]
Yang F, Zhang XY, Guo ZM, et al. 3D printing of NdFeB bonded magnets with SrFe12O19 addition. J Alloys Compd 2019, 779: 900–907.
[59]
Sonnleitner K, Huber C, Teliban I, et al. 3D printing of polymer-bonded anisotropic magnets in an external magnetic field and by a modified production process. Appl Phys Lett 2020, 116: 092403.
[60]
Zhang JH, Zhao SC, Zhu M, et al. 3D-printed magnetic Fe3O4/MBG/PCL composite scaffolds with multifunctionality of bone regeneration, local anticancer drug delivery and hyperthermia. J Mater Chem B 2014, 2: 7583–7595.
[61]
Domingo-Roca R, Jackson JC, Windmill JFC. 3D-printing polymer-based permanent magnets. Mater Des 2018, 153: 120–128.
[62]
Zhu PF, Yang WY, Wang R, et al. 4D printing of complex structures with a fast response time to magnetic stimulus. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018, 10: 36435–36442.
[63]
Li L, Tirado A, Nlebedim IC, et al. Big area additive manufacturing of high performance bonded NdFeB magnets. Sci Rep 2016, 6: 36212.
[64]
Paranthaman MP, Shafer CS, Elliott AM, et al. Binder jetting: A novel NdFeB bonded magnet fabrication process. JOM 2016, 68: 1978–1982.
[65]
Martin JJ, Fiore BE, Erb RM. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing. Nat Commun 2015, 6: 8641.
[66]
Martin JJ, Caunter A, Dendulk A, et al. Direct-write 3D printing of composite materials with magnetically aligned discontinuous reinforcement. In: Proceedings of the Proc SPIE 10194, Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications IX, Anaheim, USA, 2017, 10194: 258–271.
[67]
Bastola AK, Paudel M, Li L. Dot-patterned hybrid magnetorheological elastomer developed by 3D printing. J Magn Magn Mater 2020, 494: 165825.
[68]
Wei XX, Liu YH, Zhao DJ, et al. Net-shaped barium and strontium ferrites by 3D printing with enhanced magnetic performance from milled powders. J Magn Magn Mater 2020, 493: 165664.
[69]
Shao GB, Ware HOT, Li LQ, et al. Rapid 3D printing magnetically active microstructures with high solid loading. Adv Eng Mater 2020, 22: 1900911.
[70]
Hodaei A, Akhlaghi O, Khani N, et al. Single additive enables 3D printing of highly loaded iron oxide suspensions. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018, 10: 9873–9881.
[71]
Hassan RU, Jo SW, Seok JW. Fabrication of a functionally graded and magnetically responsive shape memory polymer using a 3D printing technique and its characterization. J Appl Polym Sci 2018, 135: 45997.
[72]
Popov V, Koptyug A, Radulov I, et al. Prospects of additive manufacturing of rare-earth and non-rare-earth permanent magnets. Procedia Manuf 2018, 21: 100–108.
[73]
Li L, Post B, Kunc V, et al. Additive manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets: Prospects and challenges. Scripta Mater 2017, 135: 100–104.
[74]
Périgo EA, Jacimovic J, García Ferré F, et al. Additive manufacturing of magnetic materials. Addit Manuf 2019, 30: 100870.
[75]
Chaudhary V, Mantri SA, Ramanujan RV, et al. Additive manufacturing of magnetic materials. Prog Mater Sci 2020, 114: 100688.
[76]
Zhang CQ, Li XJ, Jiang LM, et al. 3D printing of functional magnetic materials: From design to applications. Adv Funct Mater 2021, 31: 2102777.
[77]
Xu HF, Medina-Sánchez M, Magdanz V, et al. Sperm-hybrid micromotor for targeted drug delivery. ACS Nano 2018, 12: 327–337.
[78]
Bollig LM, Hilpisch PJ, Mowry GS, et al. 3D printed magnetic polymer composite transformers. J Magn Magn Mater 2017, 442: 97–101.
[79]
Qian Y, Yao ZJ, Lin HY, et al. Mechanical and microwave absorption properties of 3D-printed Li0.44Zn0.2Fe2.36O4/ polylactic acid composites using fused deposition modeling. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 2018, 29: 19296–19307.
[80]
Wei XX, Peng E, Xie YY, et al. Extrusion printing of a designed three-dimensional YBa2Cu3O7−x superconductor with milled precursor powder. J Mater Chem C 2017, 5: 3382–3389.
[81]
Coey JMD. Hard magnetic materials: A perspective. IEEE Trans Magn 2011, 47: 4671–4681.
[82]
Rezlescu L, Rezlescu E, Popa PD, et al. Fine barium hexaferrite powder prepared by the crystallisation of glass. J Magn Magn Mater 1999, 193: 288–290.
[83]
Brown DN. Fabrication, processing technologies, and new advances for RE–Fe–B magnets. IEEE Trans Magn 2016, 52: 2101209.
[84]
Gutfleisch O. Controlling the properties of high energy density permanent magnetic materials by different processing routes. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2000, 33: R157–R172.
[85]
Kneller EF, Hawig R. The exchange-spring magnet: A new material principle for permanent magnets. IEEE Trans Magn 1991, 27: 3588–3560.
[86]
Périgo EA, Weidenfeller B, Kollár P, et al. Past, present, and future of soft magnetic composites. Appl Phys Rev 2018, 5: 031301.
[87]
Coey JMD. Magnetic materials. J Alloys Compd 2001, 326: 2–6.
[88]
Rikken RS, Nolte RJ, Maan JC, et al. Manipulation of micro- and nanostructure motion with magnetic fields. Soft Matter 2014, 10: 1295–1308.
[89]
Coey JMD. Perspective and prospects for rare earth permanent magnets. Engineering 2020, 6: 119–131.
[90]
Utela B, Storti D, Anderson R, et al. A review of process development steps for new material systems in three dimensional printing (3DP). J Manuf Process 2008, 10: 96–104.
[91]
Duoss EB, Weisgraber TH, Hearon K, et al. Three-dimensional printing of elastomeric, cellular architectures with negative stiffness. Adv Funct Mater 2014, 24: 4905–4913.
[92]
Gross BC, Erkal JL, Lockwood SY, et al. Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences. Anal Chem 2014, 86: 3240–3253.
[93]
Kodama H. Automatic method for fabricating a three-dimensional plastic model with photo-hardening polymer. Rev Sci Instrum 1981, 52: 1770–1773.
[94]
Hull CW. Apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography. U.S. Patent 4 575 330, 1986.
[95]
Lu Y, Mapili G, Suhali G, et al. A digital micro-mirror device-based system for the microfabrication of complex, spatially patterned tissue engineering scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res A 2006, 77A: 396–405.
[96]
Sun C, Fang N, Wu DM, et al. Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask. Sens Actuat A Phys 2005, 121: 113–120.
[97]
Tumbleston JR, Shirvanyants D, Ermoshkin N, et al. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects. Science 2015, 347: 1349–1352.
[98]
Cumpston BH, Ananthavel SP, Barlow S, et al. Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication. Nature 1999, 398: 51–54.
[99]
Kuebler SM, Braun KL, Zhou WH, et al. Design and application of high-sensitivity two-photon initiators for three-dimensional microfabrication. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 2003, 158: 163–170.
[100]
Rasaki SA, Xiong DY, Xiong SF, et al. Photopolymerization-based additive manufacturing of ceramics: A systematic review. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 442–471.
[101]
Zheng XY, Deotte J, Alonso MP, et al. Design and optimization of a light-emitting diode projection micro-stereolithography three-dimensional manufacturing system. Rev Sci Instrum 2012, 83: 125001.
[102]
Lu L, Guo P, Pan YY. Magnetic-field-assisted projection stereolithography for three-dimensional printing of smart structures. J Manuf Sci Eng 2017, 139: 071008.
[103]
Ji ZY, Yan CY, Yu B, et al. Multimaterials 3D printing for free assembly manufacturing of magnetic driving soft actuator. Adv Mater Interfaces 2017, 4: 1700629.
[104]
Peters C, Ergeneman O, García PDW, et al. Superparamagnetic twist-type actuators with shape-independent magnetic properties and surface functionalization for advanced biomedical applications. Adv Funct Mater 2014, 24: 5269– 5276.
[105]
Baldissera AB, Pavez P, Wendhausen PAP, et al. Additive manufacturing of bonded Nd–Fe–B—Effect of process parameters on magnetic properties. IEEE Trans Magn 2017, 53: 2101704.
[106]
Jaćimović J, Binda F, Herrmann LG, et al. Net shape 3D printed NdFeB permanent magnet. Adv Eng Mater 2017, 19: 1700098.
[107]
Mikler CV, Chaudhary V, Borkar T, et al. Laser additive processing of Ni–Fe–V and Ni–Fe–Mo permalloys: Microstructure and magnetic properties. Mater Lett 2017, 192: 9–11.
[108]
Kumar S. Selective laser sintering: A qualitative and objective approach. JOM 2003, 55: 43–47.
[109]
Williams JM, Adewunmi A, Schek RM, et al. Bone tissue engineering using polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering. Biomaterials 2005, 26: 4817– 4827.
[110]
Huber C, Sepehri-Amin H, Goertler M, et al. Coercivity enhancement of selective laser sintered NdFeB magnets by grain boundary infiltration. Acta Mater 2019, 172: 66–71.
[111]
Kruth JP, Froyen L, Vaerenbergh JV, et al. Selective laser melting of iron-based powder. J Mater Process Technol 2004, 149: 616–622.
[112]
Prashanth KG, Eckert J. Formation of metastable cellular microstructures in selective laser melted alloys. J Alloys Compd 2017, 707: 27–34.
[113]
Jung HY, Choi SJ, Prashanth KG, et al. Fabrication of Fe-based bulk metallic glass by selective laser melting: A parameter study. Mater Des 2015, 86: 703–708.
[114]
Miao XF, Wang WY, Liang HX, et al. Printing (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si) magnetocaloric alloys for magnetic refrigeration applications. J Mater Sci 2020, 55: 6660–6668.
[115]
Goll D, Schuller D, Martinek G, et al. Additive manufacturing of soft magnetic materials and components. Addit Manuf 2019, 27: 428–439.
[116]
Goll D, Vogelgsang D, Pflanz U, et al. Refining the microstructure of Fe–Nd–B by selective laser melting. Phys Status Solidi RRL Rapid Res Lett 2019, 13: 1800536.
[117]
Heer B, Bandyopadhyay A. Compositionally graded magnetic-nonmagnetic bimetallic structure using laser engineered net shaping. Mater Lett 2018, 216: 16–19.
[118]
Lewis JA, Gratson GM. Direct writing in three dimensions. Mater Today 2004, 7: 32–39.
[119]
Palmero EM, Casaleiz D, Jiménez NA, et al. Magnetic-polymer composites for bonding and 3D printing of permanent magnets. IEEE Trans Magn 2019, 55: 2101004.
[120]
Patton MV, Ryan P, Calascione T, et al. Manipulating magnetic anisotropy in fused filament fabricated parts via macroscopic shape, mesoscopic infill orientation, and infill percentage. Addit Manuf 2019, 27: 482–488.
[121]
Huber C, Goertler M, Abert C, et al. Additive manufactured and topology optimized passive shimming elements for permanent magnetic systems. Sci Rep 2018, 8: 14651.
[122]
Smay JE, Cesarano J, Lewis JA. Colloidal inks for directed assembly of 3-D periodic structures. Langmuir 2002, 18: 5429–5437.
[123]
Compton BG, Lewis JA. 3D-printing of lightweight cellular composites. Adv Mater 2014, 26: 5930–5935.
[124]
Lewis JA. Direct ink writing of 3D functional materials. Adv Funct Mater 2006, 16: 2193–2204.
[125]
Smay JE, Gratson GM, Shepherd RF, et al. Directed colloidal assembly of 3D periodic structures. Adv Mater 2002, 14: 12791283.10.1002/1521-4095(20020916)14:18<1279::AID-ADMA1279>3.0.CO;2-A
[126]
Yang LL, Zeng XJ, Ditta A, et al. Preliminary 3D printing of large inclined-shaped alumina ceramic parts by direct ink writing. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 312–319.
[127]
Herschel WH, Bulkley R. Konsistenzmessungen von gummi-benzollösungen. Kolloid-Zeitschrift 1926, 39: 291–300.
[128]
Reed JS. Introduction to the Principles of Ceramic Processing. New York: Wiley, 1988.
[129]
Janna WS. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 4th edn. Boston, USA: CRC Press, 2010.
[130]
M’Barki A, Bocquet L, Stevenson A. Linking rheology and printability for dense and strong ceramics by direct ink writing. Sci Rep 2017, 7: 6017.
[131]
Faes M, Valkenaers H, Vogeler F, et al. Extrusion-based 3D printing of ceramic components. Procedia CIRP 2015, 28: 76–81.
[132]
Benbow JJ, Oxley EW, Bridgwater J. The extrusion mechanics of pastes—The influence of paste formulation on extrusion parameters. Chem Eng Sci 1987, 42: 2151– 2162.
[133]
Benbow JJ. Paste Flow and Extrusion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1993.
[134]
Kokkinis D, Schaffner M, Studart AR. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials. Nat Commun 2015, 6: 8643.
[135]
Khazdozian HA, Li L, Paranthaman MP, et al. Low-field alignment of anisotropic bonded magnets for additive manufacturing of permanent magnet motors. JOM 2019, 71: 626–632.
[136]
Erb RM, Libanori R, Rothfuchs N, et al. Composites reinforced in three dimensions by using low magnetic fields. Science 2012, 335: 199–204.
[137]
Erb RM, Cherenack KH, Stahel RE, et al. Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for elastic electronics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2012, 4: 2860–2864.
[138]
Lu L, Baynojir Joyee E, Pan YY. Correlation between microscale magnetic particle distribution and magnetic-field-responsive performance of three-dimensional printed composites. J Micro Nano Manuf 2018, 6: 010904.
[139]
Joyee EB, Pan YY. Multi-material additive manufacturing of functional soft robot. Procedia Manuf 2019, 34: 566– 573.
[140]
Tsumori F, Kawanishi H, Kudo K, et al. Development of three-dimensional printing system for magnetic elastomer with control of magnetic anisotropy in the structure. Jpn J Appl Phys 2016, 55: 06GP18.
[141]
Song H, Spencer J, Jander A, et al. Inkjet printing of magnetic materials with aligned anisotropy. J Appl Phys 2014, 115: 17E308.
[142]
Huber C, Mitteramskogler G, Goertler M, et al. Additive manufactured polymer-bonded isotropic NdFeB magnets by stereolithography and their comparison to fused filament fabricated and selective laser sintered magnets. Materials 2020, 13: 1916.
[143]
Nagarajan B, Eufracio Aguilera AF, Wiechmann M, et al. Characterization of magnetic particle alignment in photosensitive polymer resin: A preliminary study for additive manufacturing processes. Addit Manuf 2018, 22: 528–536.
[144]
Zhang BC, Fenineche NE, Zhu L, et al. Studies of magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe–30%Ni) prepared by SLM technology. J Magn Magn Mater 2012, 324: 495–500.
[145]
Garibaldi M, Ashcroft I, Simonelli M, et al. Metallurgy of high-silicon steel parts produced using selective laser melting. Acta Mater 2016, 110: 207–216.
[146]
Li L, Tirado A, Conner BS, et al. A novel method combining additive manufacturing and alloy infiltration for NdFeB bonded magnet fabrication. J Magn Magn Mater 2017, 438: 163–167.
[147]
Li L, Jones K, Sales B, et al. Fabrication of highly dense isotropic Nd–Fe–B nylon bonded magnets via extrusion-based additive manufacturing. Addit Manuf 2018, 21: 495– 500.
[148]
Hanemann T, Syperek D, Nötzel D. 3D printing of ABS Barium ferrite composites. Materials 2020, 13: 1481.
[149]
Khazdozian HA, Manzano JS, Gandha K, et al. Recycled Sm-Co bonded magnet filaments for 3D printing of magnets. AIP Adv 2018, 8: 056722.
[150]
Huber C, Cano S, Teliban I, et al. Polymer-bonded anisotropic SrFe12O19 filaments for fused filament fabrication. J Appl Phys 2020, 127: 063904.
[151]
[Compton BG, Kemp JW, Novikov TV, et al. Direct-write 3D printing of NdFeB bonded magnets. Mater Manuf Process 2018, 33: 109–113.
[152]
Peng E, Wei XX, Herng TS, et al. Ferrite-based soft and hard magnetic structures by extrusion free-forming. RSC Adv 2017, 7: 27128–27138.
[153]
Yang F, Zhang XY, Guo ZM, et al. 3D gel-printing of Sr ferrite parts. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 22370–22377.
[154]
Zhai FQ, Sun AZ, Yuan D, et al. Epoxy resin effect on anisotropic Nd–Fe–B rubber-bonded magnets performance. J Alloys Compd 2011, 509: 687–690.
[155]
Ormerod J, Constantinides S. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited). J Appl Phys 1997, 81: 4816–4820.
[156]
Shen AL, Bailey CP, Ma AWK, et al. UV-assisted direct write of polymer-bonded magnets. J Magn Magn Mater 2018, 462: 220–225.
[157]
Sukthavorn K, Phengphon N, Nootsuwan N, et al. Effect of silane coupling on the properties of polylactic acid/barium ferrite magnetic composite filament for the 3D printing process. J Appl Polym Sci 2021, 138: 50965.
[158]
Schönrath H, Spasova M, Kilian SO, et al. Additive manufacturing of soft magnetic permalloy from Fe and Ni powders: Control of magnetic anisotropy. J Magn Magn Mater 2019, 478: 274–278.
[159]
Chaudhary V, Nartu MSKKY, Mantri SA, et al. Additive manufacturing of functionally graded Co–Fe and Ni–Fe magnetic materials. J Alloys Compd 2020, 823: 153817.
[160]
Garibaldi M, Ashcroft I, Lemke JN, et al. Effect of annealing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic Fe–Si produced via laser additive manufacturing. Scripta Mater 2018, 142: 121–125.
[161]
Yang XS, Cui XF, Jin G, et al. Soft magnetic property of (Fe60Co35Ni5)78Si6B12Cu1Mo3 alloys by laser additive manufacturing. J Magn Magn Mater 2018, 466: 75–80.
[162]
An T, Hwang KT, Kim JH, et al. Extrusion-based 3D direct ink writing of NiZn-ferrite structures with viscoelastic ceramic suspension. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 6469–6476.
[163]
Liu LB, Ngo KDT, Lu GQ. Guideline for paste extrusion 3D printing of slump-free ferrite inductor cores. Ceram Int 2021, 47: 5803–5811.
[164]
Liu LB, Ngo KDT, Lu GQ. Effects of Co3O4 addition on magnetic properties of NiCuZn ferrite feedstock for 3D-printing power magnetic components. IEEE Trans Magn 2020, 56: 2000307.
[165]
Liu LB, Ngo KDT, Lu GQ. Effects of SiO2 inclusions on sintering and permeability of NiCuZn ferrite for additive manufacturing of power magnets. J Eur Ceram Soc 2021, 41: 466–471.
[166]
Ye FJ, Dai HY, Peng K, et al. Effect of Mn doping on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CuFeO2 ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 444–453.
[167]
Phor L, Chahal S, Kumar V. Zn2+ substituted superparamagnetic MgFe2O4 spinel-ferrites: Investigations on structural and spin-interactions. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 576–587.
[168]
Aqzna SS, Yeoh CK, Idris MS, et al. Effect of different filler content of ABS–zinc ferrite composites on mechanical, electrical and thermal conductivity by using 3D printing. J Vinyl Addit Technol 2018, 24: E217–E229.
[169]
Wang YQ, Castles F, Grant PS. 3D printing of NiZn ferrite/ ABS magnetic composites for electromagnetic devices. MRS Proc 2015, 1788: 29–35.
[170]
Bissannagari M, Kim TH, Yook JG, et al. All inkjet-printed flexible wireless power transfer module: PI/Ag hybrid spiral coil built into 3D NiZn-ferrite trench structure with a resonance capacitor. Nano Energy 2019, 62: 645–652.
[171]
Razzaq MY, Behl M, Kratz K, et al. Multifunctional hybrid nanocomposites with magnetically controlled reversible shape-memory effect. Adv Mater 2013, 25: 5730–5733.
[172]
Thévenot J, Oliveira H, Sandre O, et al. Magnetic responsive polymer composite materials. Chem Soc Rev 2013, 42: 7099–7116.
[173]
Li YY, Liu QK, Hess AJ, et al. Programmable ultralight magnets via orientational arrangement of ferromagnetic nanoparticles within aerogel hosts. ACS Nano 2019, 13: 13875–13883.
[174]
Cuchet C, Muster A, Germano P, et al. Soft magnets implementation using a stereolithography-based 3D printer. In: Proceedings of the 2017 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, Sydney, Australia, 2017: 8056301.
[175]
Palmero EM, Rial J, de Vicente J, et al. Development of permanent magnet MnAlC/polymer composites and flexible filament for bonding and 3D-printing technologies. Sci Technol Adv Mater 2018, 19: 465–473.
[176]
Khatri B, Lappe K, Noetzel D, et al. A 3D-printable polymer-metal soft-magnetic functional composite—Development and characterization. Materials 2018, 11: 189.
[177]
Guan XN, Xu XN, Kuniyoshi R, et al. Electromagnetic and mechanical properties of carbonyl iron powders-PLA composites fabricated by fused deposition modeling. Mater Res Express 2018, 5: 115303.
[178]
Liu LB, Ge T, Ngo KDT, et al. Ferrite paste cured with ultraviolet light for additive manufacturing of magnetic components for power electronics. IEEE Magn Lett 2018, 9: 5102705.
[179]
Roh S, Okello LB, Golbasi N, et al. 3D-printed silicone soft architectures with programmed magneto-capillary reconfiguration. Adv Mater Technol 2019, 4: 1800528.
[180]
Kang BJ, Lee CK, Oh JH. All-inkjet-printed electrical components and circuit fabrication on a plastic substrate. Microelectron Eng 2012, 97: 251–254.
[181]
Credi C, Fiorese A, Tironi M, et al. 3D printing of cantilever-type microstructures by stereolithography of ferromagnetic photopolymers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016, 8: 26332–26342.
[182]
Löwa N, Fabert JM, Gutkelch D, et al. 3D-printing of novel magnetic composites based on magnetic nanoparticles and photopolymers. J Magn Magn Mater 2019, 469: 456–460.
[183]
Bastola AK, Hoang VT, Li L. A novel hybrid magnetorheological elastomer developed by 3D printing. Mater Des 2017, 114: 391–397.
[184]
Bastola AK, Paudel M, Li L. Development of hybrid magnetorheological elastomers by 3D printing. Polymer 2018, 149: 213–228.
[185]
Chen ZP, Ren L, Li JY, et al. Rapid fabrication of microneedles using magnetorheological drawing lithography. Acta Biomater 2018, 65: 283–291.
[186]
Sindersberger D, Diermeier A, Prem N, et al. Printing of hybrid magneto active polymers with 6 degrees of freedom. Mater Today Commun 2018, 15: 269–274.
[187]
Tiberto P, Barrera G, Celegato F, et al. Magnetic properties of jet-printer inks containing dispersed magnetite nanoparticles. Eur Phys J B 2013, 86: 173.
[188]
Saleh E, Woolliams P, Clarke B, et al. 3D inkjet-printed UV-curable inks for multi-functional electromagnetic applications. Addit Manuf 2017, 13: 143–148.
[189]
Kim J, Chung SE, Choi SE, et al. Programming magnetic anisotropy in polymeric microactuators. Nat Mater 2011, 10: 747–752.
[190]
Erb RM, Martin JJ, Soheilian R, et al. Actuating soft matter with magnetic torque. Adv Funct Mater 2016, 26: 3859– 3880.
[191]
Truby RL, Lewis JA. Printing soft matter in three dimensions. Nature 2016, 540: 371–378.
[192]
Ionov L. Biomimetic hydrogel-based actuating systems. Adv Funct Mater 2013, 23: 4555–4570.
[193]
Tabatabaei SN, Lapointe J, Martel S. Shrinkable hydrogel-based magnetic microrobots for interventions in the vascular network. Adv Robotics 2011, 25: 1049–1067.
[194]
Suzumori K. Elastic materials producing compliant robots. Robotics Auton Syst 1996, 18: 135–140.
[195]
Rus D, Tolley MT. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots. Nature 2015, 521: 467–475.
[196]
Kim SW, Lee SM, Lee JH, et al. Fabrication and manipulation of ciliary microrobots with non-reciprocal magnetic actuation. Sci Rep 2016, 6: 30713.
[197]
Diller E, Sitti M. Three-dimensional programmable assembly by untethered magnetic robotic micro-grippers. Adv Funct Mater 2014, 24: 4397–4404.
[198]
Hu W, Lum GZ, Mastrangeli M, et al. Small-scale soft-bodied robot with multimodal locomotion. Nature 2018, 554: 81–85.
[199]
Wehner M, Truby RL, Fitzgerald DJ, et al. An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots. Nature 2016, 536: 451–455.
[200]
Joyee EB, Pan YY. A fully three-dimensional printed inchworm-inspired soft robot with magnetic actuation. Soft Robotics 2019, 6: 333–345.
[201]
Keneth ES, Epstein AR, Harari MS, et al. 3D printed ferrofluid based soft actuators. In: Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Montreal, Canada, 2019: 7569–7574.
[202]
de Marco C, Alcântara CCJ, Kim S, et al. Indirect 3D and 4D printing of soft robotic microstructures. Adv Mater Technol 2019, 4: 1900332.
[203]
Zhao XH, Kim YH. Soft microbots programmed by nanomagnets. Nature 2019, 575: 58–59.
[204]
Chen XZ, Hoop M, Mushtaq F, et al. Recent developments in magnetically driven micro- and nanorobots. Appl Mater Today 2017, 9: 37–48.
[205]
Peters C, Hoop M, Pané S, et al. Degradable magnetic composites for minimally invasive interventions: Device fabrication, targeted drug delivery, and cytotoxicity tests. Adv Mater 2016, 28: 533–538.
[206]
Kim Y, Parada GA, Liu SD, et al. Ferromagnetic soft continuum robots. Sci Robot 2019, 4: eaax7329.
[207]
Macdonald E, Salas R, Espalin D, et al. 3D printing for the rapid prototyping of structural electronics. IEEE Access 2014, 2: 234–242.
[208]
Liang W, Raymond L, Rivas J. 3D printed air core inductors for high frequency power converters. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2016, 31: 52–64.
[209]
Huang SH, Liu P, Mokasdar A, et al. Additive manufacturing and its societal impact: A literature review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2013, 67: 1191–1203.
[210]
Yan Y, Moss J, Ngo KDT, et al. Additive manufacturing of toroid inductor for power electronics applications. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 2017, 53: 5709–5714.
[211]
Lazarus N, Bedair SS, Smith GL. Creating 3D printed magnetic devices with ferrofluids and liquid metals. Addit Manuf 2019, 26: 15–21.
[212]
Sochol RD, Sweet E, Glick CC, et al. 3D printed microfluidics and microelectronics. Microelectron Eng 2018, 189: 52–68.
[213]
Yuan S, Huang Y, Zhou JF, et al. Magnetic field energy harvesting under overhead power lines. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2015, 30: 6191–6202.
[214]
Han JC, Hu J, Wang SX, et al. Magnetic energy harvesting properties of piezofiber bimorph/NdFeB composites. Appl Phys Lett 2014, 104: 093901.
[215]
Qiu J, Wen YM, Li P, et al. Design and testing of piezoelectric energy harvester for powering wireless sensors of electric line monitoring system. J Appl Phys 2012, 111: 07E510.
[216]
Wang ZX, Hu J, Han JC, et al. A novel high-performance energy harvester based on nonlinear resonance for scavenging power-frequency magnetic energy. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2017, 64: 6556–6564.
[217]
Wang ZX, Huber C, Hu J, et al. An electrodynamic energy harvester with a 3D printed magnet and optimized topology. Appl Phys Lett 2019, 114: 013902.
[218]
Urbanek S, Ponick B, Taube A, et al. Additive manufacturing of a soft magnetic rotor active part and shaft for a permanent magnet synchronous machine. In: Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, Long Beach, USA, 2018: 668–674.
[219]
Liaw CY, Guvendiren M. Current and emerging applications of 3D printing in medicine. Biofabrication 2017, 9: 024102.
[220]
Zhang YL, Yang B, Zhang XY, et al. A magnetic self-healing hydrogel. Chem Commun 2012, 48: 9305–9307.
[221]
Bhattacharya S, Eckert F, Boyko V, et al. Temperature-, pH-, and magnetic-field-sensitive hybrid microgels. Small 2007, 3: 650–657.
[222]
Chen XZ, Hoop M, Shamsudhin N, et al. Hybrid magnetoelectric nanowires for nanorobotic applications: Fabrication, magnetoelectric coupling, and magnetically assisted in vitro targeted drug delivery. Adv Mater 2017, 29: 1605458.
[223]
Chin SY, Poh YC, Kohler AC, et al. Additive manufacturing of hydrogel-based materials for next-generation implantable medical devices. Sci Robot 2017, 2: eaah6451.
[224]
Lin HY, Huang HY, Shiue SJ, et al. Osteogenic effects of inductive coupling magnetism from magnetic 3D printed hydrogel scaffold. J Magn Magn Mater 2020, 504: 166680.
[225]
Li XJ, Shan WT, Yang Y, et al. Painless microneedles: Limpet tooth-inspired painless microneedles fabricated by magnetic field-assisted 3D printing. Adv Funct Mater 2021, 31: 2170033.
[226]
Wu CT, Luo YX, Cuniberti G, et al. Three-dimensional printing of hierarchical and tough mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds with a controllable pore architecture, excellent mechanical strength and mineralization ability. Acta Biomater 2011, 7: 2644–2650.
[227]
Luo YX, Wu CT, Lode A, et al. Hierarchical mesoporous bioactive glass/alginate composite scaffolds fabricated by three-dimensional plotting for bone tissue engineering. Biofabrication 2013, 5: 015005.
[228]
Chen Z, Zhang DW, Peng E, et al. 3D-printed ceramic structures with in situ grown whiskers for effective oil/ water separation. Chem Eng J 2019, 373: 1223–1232.
[229]
Zhong LS, Hu JS, Liang HP, et al. Self-assembled 3D flowerlike iron oxide nanostructures and their application in water treatment. Adv Mater 2006, 18: 2426–2431.
[230]
Yantasee W, Warner CL, Sangvanich T, et al. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous systems with thiol functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Environ Sci Technol 2007, 41: 5114–5119.
[231]
Chen K, He JY, Li YL, et al. Removal of cadmium and lead ions from water by sulfonated magnetic nanoparticle adsorbents. J Colloid Interface Sci 2017, 494: 307–316.
[232]
Meidanchi A, Akhavan O. Superparamagnetic zinc ferrite spinel–graphene nanostructures for fast wastewater purification. Carbon 2014, 69: 230–238.
[233]
Chandra V, Park J, Chun Y, et al. Water-dispersible magnetite-reduced graphene oxide composites for arsenic removal. ACS Nano 2010, 4: 3979–3986.
[234]
Hu JS, Zhong LS, Song WG, et al. Synthesis of hierarchically structured metal oxides and their application in heavy metal ion removal. Adv Mater 2008, 20: 2977–2982.
[235]
Kilianová M, Prucek R, Filip J, et al. Remarkable efficiency of ultrafine superparamagnetic iron(III) oxide nanoparticles toward arsenate removal from aqueous environment. Chemosphere 2013, 93: 2690–2697.
[236]
Huang SH, Chen DH. Rapid removal of heavy metal cations and anions from aqueous solutions by an amino-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 2009, 163: 174–179.
[237]
Yu XL, Tong SR, Ge MF, et al. One-step synthesis of magnetic composites of cellulose@iron oxide nanoparticles for arsenic removal. J Mater Chem A 2013, 1: 959–965.
[238]
Wang J, Zhang WT, Yue XY, et al. One-pot synthesis of multifunctional magnetic ferrite–MoS2–carbon dot nanohybrid adsorbent for efficient Pb(II) removal. J Mater Chem A 2016, 4: 3893–3900.
[239]
Fu YS, Wang X. Magnetically separable ZnFe2O4–graphene catalyst and its high photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. Ind Eng Chem Res 2011, 50: 7210– 7218.
[240]
Afkhami A, Sayari S, Moosavi R, et al. Magnetic nickel zinc ferrite nanocomposite as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of organic dyes from aqueous solutions. J Ind Eng Chem 2015, 21: 920–924.
[241]
Rajput S, Pittman CU Jr, Mohan D. Magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle synthesis and applications for lead (Pb2+) and chromium (Cr6+) removal from water. J Colloid Interface Sci 2016, 468: 334–346.
[242]
Kumar S, Nair RR, Pillai PB, et al. Graphene oxide– MnFe2O4 magnetic nanohybrids for efficient removal of lead and arsenic from water. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014, 6: 17426–17436.
[243]
Wu ZX, Li W, Webley PA, et al. General and controllable synthesis of novel mesoporous magnetic iron oxide@carbon encapsulates for efficient arsenic removal. Adv Mater 2012, 24: 485–491.
[244]
Venkateswarlu S, Yoon M. Core–shell ferromagnetic nanorod based on amine polymer composite (Fe3O4@DAPF) for fast removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2015, 7: 25362–25372.
[245]
Sharma RK, Puri A, Monga Y, et al. Acetoacetanilide-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles for selective and cyclic removal of Pb2+ ions from different charged wastewaters. J Mater Chem A 2014, 2: 12888–12898.
[246]
Shen YF, Tang J, Nie ZH, et al. Preparation and application of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for wastewater purification. Sep Purif Technol 2009, 68: 312–319.
[247]
Dave PN, Chopda LV. Application of iron oxide nanomaterials for the removal of heavy metals. J Nanotechnol 2014, 2014: 398569.
[248]
Mou FZ, Pan D, Chen CR, et al. Magnetically modulated pot-like MnFe2O4 micromotors: Nanoparticle assembly fabrication and their capability for direct oil removal. Adv Funct Mater 2015, 25: 6173–6181.
[249]
Ambashta RD, Sillanpää M. Water purification using magnetic assistance: A review. J Hazard Mater 2010, 180: 38–49.
[250]
Gu SG, Lian F, Yan KJ, et al. Application of polymeric ferric sulfate combined with cross-frequency magnetic field in the printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol 2019, 80: 1562–1570.
[251]
Kim YG, Song JB, Yang DG, et al. Effects of filter shapes on the capture efficiency of a superconducting high-gradient magnetic separation system. Supercond Sci Technol 2013, 26: 085002.
[252]
Ditsch A, Lindenmann S, Laibinis PE, et al. High-gradient magnetic separation of magnetic nanoclusters. Ind Eng Chem Res 2005, 44: 6824–6836.
[253]
Wang FW, Tang DD, Gao LK, et al. Dynamic capture and accumulation of multiple types of magnetic particles based on fully coupled multiphysics model in multiwire matrix for high-gradient magnetic separation. Adv Powder Technol 2020, 31: 1040–1050.
[254]
Xue ZX, Wang YH, Zheng XY, et al. Particle capture of special cross-section matrices in axial high gradient magnet ic separation: A 3D simulation. Sep Purif Technol 2020, 237: 116375.
[255]
Hoffmann C, Franzreb M, Holl WH. A novel high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) design for biotech applications. IEEE Trans Appl Supercond 2002, 12: 963–966.
[256]
Svoboda J. A realistic description of the process of high-gradient magnetic separation. Miner Eng 2001, 14: 1493– 1503.
[257]
Yavuz CT, Mayo JT, Yu WW, et al. Low-field magnetic separation of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanocrystals. Science 2006, 314: 964–967.
[258]
Gheisari K, Shahriari S, Javadpour S. Structure and magnetic properties of ball-mill prepared nanocrystalline Ni–Zn ferrite powders at elevated temperatures. J Alloys Compd 2013, 552: 146–151.
[259]
Sharma R, Singhal S. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of zinc doped nickel ferrite and their application in photo catalytic degradation of methylene blue. Phys B Condens Matter 2013, 414: 83–90.
[260]
Raghavender AT, Hoa Hong N, Chikoidze E, et al. Effect of zinc doping on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition technique. J Magn Magn Mater 2015, 378: 358–361.
[261]
Zhu WM, Wang L, Zhao R, et al. Electromagnetic and microwave-absorbing properties of magnetic nickel ferrite nanocrystals. Nanoscale 2011, 3: 2862–2864.
[262]
Tang SCN, Yan DYS, Lo IMC. Sustainable wastewater treatment using microsized magnetic hydrogel with magnetic separation technology. Ind Eng Chem Res 2014, 53: 15718–15724.
[263]
Chowdhury MR, Steffes J, Huey BD, et al. 3D printed polyamide membranes for desalination. Science 2018, 361: 682–686.
[264]
Peyer KE, Zhang L, Nelson BJ. Bio-inspired magnetic swimming microrobots for biomedical applications. Nanoscale 2013, 5: 1259–1272.
[265]
Nelson BJ, Kaliakatsos IK, Abbott JJ. Microrobots for minimally invasive medicine. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2010, 12: 55–85.
[266]
Klumpp S, Lefèvre CT, Bennet M, et al. Swimming with magnets: From biological organisms to synthetic devices. Phys Rep 2019, 789: 1–54.
[267]
Hsu A, Chu W, Cowan C, et al. Diamagnetically levitated milli-robots for heterogeneous 3D assembly. J Micro Bio Robotics 2018, 14: 1–16.
[268]
Ghosh D, Gupta T, Sahu RP, et al. Three-dimensional printing of diamagnetic microparticles in paramagnetic and diamagnetic media. Phys Fluids 2020, 32: 072001.
[269]
Lei L, Liu L, Wang XT, et al. Strongly improved current-carrying capacity induced by nanoscale lattice strains in YBa2Cu3O7−δ–Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 composite films derived from chemical solution deposition. J Mater Chem C 2016, 4: 1392–1397.
[270]
Albiss BA, Obaidat IM. Applications of YBCO-coated conductors: A focus on the chemical solution deposition method. J Mater Chem 2010, 20: 1836–1845.
[271]
Tiismus H, Kallaste A, Belahcen A, et al. Hysteresis measurements and numerical losses segregation of additively manufactured silicon steel for 3D printing electrical machines. Appl Sci 2020, 10: 6515.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 04 August 2021
Revised: 25 October 2021
Accepted: 08 January 2022
Published: 20 April 2022
Issue date: May 2022

Copyright

© The Authors 2022.

Acknowledgements

This research work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2020QE040). Ming-Liang JIN would like to thank the financial support by the Young Taishan Scholars Program of Shandong Province (No. 201909099).

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return